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  • What Future for Reform?
    Rights and Resources Initiative et al
  • Publications and Reports

    RRI Global Programs 2014 Workplan

    RRI Global Programs 2014 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    The Global Programs Workplan for 2014 was developed by RRG in collaboration with Partners and Collaborators. The fifth annual Regional and Global Programs Planning Meeting was convened along with the Regional Planning Meeting in Washington, DC in November 2013. During that meeting RRG staff met with Partners and RRI Fellows to discuss and define strategies, activities and points of collaboration for 2014.

    RRI Africa 2014 Workplan

    RRI Africa 2014 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Analysis and Strategy for 2014 organized by region and country.

    RRI Latin America 2014 Workplan

    RRI Latin America 2014 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Strategy and analysis for 2014 by country and region.

    RRI Asia 2014 Workplan

    RRI Asia 2014 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Strategy and analysis for 2014 by country and region.

    What Future for Reform?

    What Future for Reform?

    Progress and slowdown in forest tenure reform since 2002

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    Who owns the world’s forests, and who decides on their governance? The answers to these questions are still deeply contested. To many Indigenous Peoples and local communities who have lived in and around forests for generations, the forests belong to them, under locally defined systems of customary tenure. In most countries, however, governments have claimed ownership of much of the forest estate through historical processes of expropriation, and those claims have been formalized in statutory laws. While governments are increasingly recognizing local ownership and control of forests, forest tenure arrangements remain in dispute or unclear in many places, including low, middle, and high income countries.

    Status of Forest Carbon Rights and Implications for Communities, the Carbon Trade, and REDD+ Investments

    Status of Forest Carbon Rights and Implications for Communities, the Carbon Trade, and REDD+ Investments

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    The Warsaw Framework on REDD+ adopted by Parties to the UNFCCC in November 2013 paves the way for payments to flow to developing countries for carbon emissions reductions from forests. The new framework encourages countries to set up a national entity or designated focal point for REDD+, which will be eligible to receive financing to implement REDD+ activities and strategies. The climate community has generally welcomed this decision as a landmark achievement, although there has been some criticism regarding the lack of a mechanism to implement social and environmental safeguards to protect the rights of local peoples.

    Human rights and resource conflicts in the Amazon

    Human rights and resource conflicts in the Amazon

    - Rainforest Foundation Norway

     

    This report investigates an alarming increase in human rights violations in the Amazon region, where human rights defenders, environmental activists and indigenous peoples are facing attacks and are being put under systematic pressure; and rights to land and to consultation are regularly encroached.

    Briefing: Exploring the Connection between Climate Change and Political Instability

    Briefing: Exploring the Connection between Climate Change and Political Instability

    Arun Agarwal - IFRI

     

    This briefing is extracted from a January 2014 address to RRI members and staff by Arun Agrawal. Arun coordinates the International Forestry Resources and Institutions network, which is a coalition partner of RRI. He has written critically on indigenous knowledge, community-based conservation, common property, population and resources, and environmental identities.

    Linking FLEGT and REDD+ to Improve Forest Governance

    Linking FLEGT and REDD+ to Improve Forest Governance

    - European Tropical Fore st Research Network

     

    For the past decade or so, developing countries have engaged in a variety of new international initiatives aiming at improving forest management and governance. The prevailing international forest initiatives at the moment are FLEGT and REDD+. FLEGT focuses on combating illegal logging; REDD+ aims to reduce deforestation and forest degradation and enhance carbon stocks. These initiatives offer innovative approaches to longstanding challenges in the land-use sector for policy-makers and forest stewards in developing countries. Increased cooperation between the initiatives at the national level could advance forest governance reforms, strengthen stakeholder engagement and balance competing interests.

    Lots of Words, Little Action

    Lots of Words, Little Action

    Will the private sector tip the scales for community land rights?

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    The annual review of the state of rights and resources 2013-2014.

     

    Associated Documents

    Statu Quo Statu Quo
    Le secteur privé changera-t-il la donne en faveur des droits fonciers communautaires ?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Muchas Palabras, Poca Acción Muchas Palabras, Poca Acción
    ¿Inclinará el sector privado la balanza a favor de los derechos a la tierra de las comunidades?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Lessons Learned from Community Forestry in Latin America and their Relevance for REDD

    Lessons Learned from Community Forestry in Latin America and their Relevance for REDD

    - Tetra Tech, Forest Carbon, Markets and Communities Program, USAID

     

    The United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-supported Forest Carbon, Markets, and Communities (FCMC) Program commissioned this review of lessons learned from community forestry in Latin America. This review analyzes experiences and key lessons learned over three decades following the introduction of legal and policy reforms supporting community rights over forests as well as community involvement in the management of forests. It presents some key lessons from community forestry that are highly relevant for REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation).

    RRI Strategic Priorities for 2014

    RRI Strategic Priorities for 2014

    - RRI

     

    RRI strategic priorities for 2014. Includes overarching priorities, strategic analysis, networking support, communications and outreach, strategic initiatives, country and regional initiatives, coalition coordination, and operations.

    Scaling-Up Strategies to Secure Community Land and Resource Rights

    Scaling-Up Strategies to Secure Community Land and Resource Rights

    An International Conference to Take Stock of Current Efforts, Identify Promising Strategies, and Catalyze New Alliances and Action

    The Rights and Resources Initiative, HELVETAS, Swiss Intercooperation, Oxfam, International Land Coalition, IUCN

     

    This report provides a summary of the main outcomes and discussions from the Interlaken conference, with a focus on the priorities for action developed within five thematic strategy sessions, which ran in parallel and provided the main structure and organization of the conference. More information about the program, presentations, media coverage and related supplemental information including two short films made on the conference is available at the website: http://communitylandrights.org/.

    IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIFE & LIVELIHOOD OF DALITS

    IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON LIFE & LIVELIHOOD OF DALITS

    An exploratory study from disaster risk reduction lens

    - THE NATIONAL DALIT WATCH, SOCIETY FOR PROMOTION OF WASTELANDS DEVELOPMENT

     

    Dalit stakes in environment are high due to their dependence on natural resources for livelihoods. Though climatic uncertainties have implications on many sectors, rural livelihoods are most affected by changes in climatic patterns. Dalits, who are highly dependent on earnings from agricultural labour and, livestock rearing dependent on forests and other common lands have fewer resources and options to combat the damages to the resource base because of climate change. The internalization of discrimination and exclusion continue to deprive them of their social, economic and political rights and opportunities. Their locational, social and economic vulnerabilities place a greater strain on their adaptive capacity to climate change and ability to deal with shocks, stresses and change.

    A Systemic Analysis of Land Markets and Land Institutions in West African Cities

    A Systemic Analysis of Land Markets and Land Institutions in West African Cities

    Rules and Practices: The Case of Bamako, Mali

    Alain Durand-Lasserve, Maÿlis Durand-Lasserve, Harris Selod

     

    This paper presents a new type of land market analysis relevant to cities with plural tenure systems as in West Africa. The methodology hinges on a systemic analysis of land delivery channels, which helps to show how land is initially made available for circulation, how tenure can be formalized incrementally, and the different means whereby households can access land. The analysis is applied to the area of Bamako in Mali, where information was collected through (i) interviews with key informants, (ii) a literature review on land policies, public allocations, and customary transfers of land, (iii) a press review on land disputes, and (iv) a survey of more than 1,600 land transfers of un-built plots that occurred between 2009 and 2012. The analysis finds that land is mostly accessed through an informal customary channel, whereby peri-urban land is transformed from agricultural to residential use, and through a public channel, which involves the administrative allocation of residential plots to households. The integrated analysis of land markets and land institutions stresses the complexity of procedures and the extra-legality of practices that strongly affect the functioning of formal and informal markets and make access to land costly and insecure, withnegative social, economic, and environmental impacts over the long term.

    International Law Principles for REDD+

    International Law Principles for REDD+

    The Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the Obligations of REDD+ Actors

    - Indian Law Resource Center

     

    These principles of international law on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) address the questions that rights holders and stakeholders may have regarding the legal obligations and rights implications of REDD+ initiatives. This working paper was produced as a starting point for further discussions and will be revised as needed by the Indian Law Resource Center. Please direct feedback to dcoffice@indianlaw.org.

    Enabling Forest Users to Exercise Their Rights

    Enabling Forest Users to Exercise Their Rights

    Rethinking regulatory barriers to communities and smallholders earning their living from timber

    - RECOFTC, RRI

     

    In many Asian countries, communities and smallholders are faced with barriers to exercising their tenure rights and to making a living from selling timber and other forest products. This study puts forward an effort to respond to the issue of restrictions, in the form of regulatory barriers, in the pursuit of sustainable forest management. When local communities (and smallholders) gain appropriate benefits from forest management and utilization, their motivation to invest in, improve and sustain their productive base increases can lead to “triple win” of improved forest conditions, maintenance of ecological services and improved local livelihoods. The program of work looks at sharing knowledge on the current impacts of regulatory barriers, with particular reference to costs of missed opportunities through restricting rights, governance and market access issues. The study was conducted in six Asian countries (Cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Vietnam) and Mexico.

     

    Associated Documents

    Mexican Community Forestry Mexican Community Forestry
    Enterprises and Associations as a Response to Barriers
    Benjamin Hodgdon, Francisco Chapela, David Bray
    La silvicultura comunitaria en Mexico La silvicultura comunitaria en Mexico

    Benjamin Hodgdon, Francisco Chapela, David Bray
    Rethinking Regulatory Barriers to Communities and  Smallholders Earning their Living from Timber in the Philippines Rethinking Regulatory Barriers to Communities and Smallholders Earning their Living from Timber in the Philippines

    Juan M. Pulhin, Mark Anthony M. Ramirez, Maricel A. Tapia, Rose Jane J. Peras
    Policy Brief Cambodia - សេចក្តី េសខេបេម្រាប់ សោលនសោបាយ Policy Brief Cambodia - សេចក្តី េសខេបេម្រាប់ សោលនសោបាយ

    - RECOFTC, University of the Philippines, College of Forestry and natural resources, Department of Environment and Natural Resources
    Policy Brief - Nepal Policy Brief - Nepal

    - Forest Action
    POLICY BRIEF POLICY BRIEF
    Why are local people in South East Asia unable to make a better living from forests?
    - RECOFTC, RRI
    Women and Land Rights: Legal Barriers Impede Women's Access to Resources

    Women and Land Rights: Legal Barriers Impede Women's Access to Resources

    - The World Bank, Trust Law

     

    A woman’s ability to own, inherit and control land and property is absolutely vital to her ability to access resources and participate in the economy. Yet many women do not have legal ownership rights to the land on which they live and work. This can increase women’s dependence on husbands and male, land-owning relatives and limit their access to credit and productive inputs.

    Mesoamerica at the forefront of community forest rights: Lessons for making REDD work

    Mesoamerica at the forefront of community forest rights: Lessons for making REDD work

    - PRISMA, Alianza Mesoamericana de Pueblos y Bosques

     

    Mesoamerica stands out for the enormous progress it has made in the recognition of community forest rights. Forest communities and indigenous peoples either own or manage over 60% of the region´s forests, in tenure reforms that have demonstrated a broad diversity of pathways to community rights (ejidos, usufruct contracts, municipal forests, indigenous territories, reserves and Comarcas, community forestry concessions, forest cooperatives etc.). Several decades of experience have already been generated from these reforms, and confirmed that the recognition of community rights has enormous potential not only in reconciling local environment and development dilemmas, but also for enhancing livelihoods, combating climate change, increasing resilience, and strengthening forest governance. These experiences contain critical lessons for large forested regions in other areas of the world – in particular for REDD+ – where many large forests are in the hands of governments with little capacity to manage them effectively.

    Mesoamérica a la delantera en derechos forestales comunitarios: Lecciones para hacer que REDD+ funcione

    Mesoamérica a la delantera en derechos forestales comunitarios: Lecciones para hacer que REDD+ funcione

    - Prisma, Alianza Mesoamericana de Pueblos y Bosques

     

    Mesoamérica se destaca por el enorme progreso que ha logrado en el reconocimiento de derechos forestales comunitarios. Comunidades forestales y pueblos indígenas, poseen o manejan más del 60% de los bosques de la región, en el marco de reformas de tenencia que han demostrado una amplia diversidad de vías para acceder a derechos comunitarios (ejidos, contratos de usufructo, bosques municipales, territorios indígenas, reservas y comarcas, concesiones forestales comunitarias, cooperativas agroforestales, etc.). Varias décadas de experiencia se han generado a partir de estas reformas confirmando que el reconocimiento de los derechos comunitarios tiene un enorme potencial, no sólo para conciliar los dilemas del desarrollo y el medio ambiente local, sino también para mejorar los medios de vida, combatir el cambio climático, aumentar la resiliencia y fortalecer la gobernanza forestal. Estas experiencias contienen lecciones críticas para grandes regiones boscosas en otras áreas del mundo, en particular para REDD+, donde la mayoría de las grandes áreas de bosque están en manos de los gobiernos con poca capacidad para manejarlos efectivamente.

    Liquidating the Forests

    Liquidating the Forests

    Hardwood flooring, organized crime and the world's last Siberian Tigers

    - Environmental Investigation Agency

     

    The report tracks the extent and nature of illegal logging in the last remaining tiger habitat in the Russian Far East, through manufacturing centers in China to the showroom of US-based Lumber Liquidators, Inc.

    Community Forestry in Honduras

    Community Forestry in Honduras

    A Path towards Better Governance (Information Brief)

    - Forest Trends

     

    This Information Brief suggests that forest governance goals can be achieved by strengthening community forestry in Honduras.

    La Forestería Comunitaria en Honduras

    La Forestería Comunitaria en Honduras

    Un camino hacia una mejor gobernanza forestal

    - Forest Trends

     

    Durante los últimos diez años, se han visto múltiples esfuerzos e iniciativas orientadas a mejorar la gobernanza forestal en Honduras. En la primera mitad de la década pasada, las protestas y marchas organizadas por un movimiento ambientalista1 (a las que se unieron miles de ciudadanos hondureños) tuvieron éxito en colocar los temas de la tala ilegal y la degradación forestal en el centro del debate político del país. En 2005, el Comisionado Nacional de los Derechos Humanos de Honduras (CONADEH) inició un proyecto de Monitoreo Forestal Independiente (MFI), el cual ha publicado casi un centenar de informes que han mejorado en gran medida la comprensión y la exposición de las actividades forestales ilegales. Los años siguientes estuvieron marcados por un proceso de consultas públicas sin precedentes, que ayudó a diseñar una nueva Ley Forestal2 y promovió el impulso político para su aprobación en septiembre de 2007.

    Loss and Damage, Women and Men

    Loss and Damage, Women and Men

    Applying a gender approach to the emerging loss and damage agenda

    Naima von Ritter Figueres

     

    As greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and, with them, super storms, weather extremes, and continued and unpredictable seasonal changes, the impacts of climate change are increasingly surpassing people’s ability to cope or adapt. Them manifested impacts that go beyond current or future adaptive capacity are known as ‘loss and damage’. This paper is a direct contribution to those discussions and presents four main areas in which gender should be considered.

    Dispossessed at all costs?

    Dispossessed at all costs?

    Remarks on the process of allocating land to SGSOC in Nguti subdivision

    - CED, REFLUFA

     

    The report analyzes the allocation of land concession in the SGSOC process. It assesses compliance with the provisions of Decree No. 76-166 of 27 (April 1976), which describe the procedures for administering state land, conflict between the provisions of the settlement agreement between SGSOC and Cameroon, and the legislation in force on land concession in Cameroon. It also provides recommendations for action to advance these efforts.

    Dépossédés à tout prix

    Dépossédés à tout prix

    - CED, RELUFA

     

    Le rapport analyse les contours de la réunion, étape décisive dans le processus d'attribution de la concession foncière à SGSOC. Il évalue sa conformité aux dispositions du décret N° 76- 166 du 27 avril 1976 fixant les modalités de gestion du domaine national; les conflits entre les dispositions de la convention d'établissement entre SGSOC et le Cameroun et les textes en vigueur en matière de concession foncière au Cameroun; et formule des recommandations pour l'action.

    Governance of Tenure II

    Governance of Tenure II

    Improving governance of forest tenure: A practical guide

    - IIED, FAO

     

    The FAO Governance of Tenure Technical Guides are part of FAO’s initiative to help develop capacities to improve tenure governance and thereby assist countries in applying the Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. The FAO Governance of Tenure Technical Guides are prepared by technical specialists and can be used by a range of actors. They: • Translate principles of the Guidelines into practical mechanisms, processes and actions. • Give examples of good practice – what has worked, where, why and how. • Provide useful tools for activities such as the design of policy and reform processes, for the design of investment projects and for guiding interventions. For more information on the Guidelines and FAO’s activities on governance of tenure visit: www.fao.org/nr/tenure

    A Million Voices: The World We Want

    A Million Voices: The World We Want

    A Sustainable Future with Dignity for All

    - UNDG

     

    This report synthesizes the results of an unprecedented global consultation led by the United Nations that has involved more than 1 million people across all countries and from all backgrounds. A special effort was made to reach out to the poor, the marginalized and others whose voices are not usually heard. Modern communications technology, the mobilization of UN agencies and the exceptional enthusiasm of countless volunteers made this unique endeavour possible. Through this exercise, the United Nations was determined to tap into the spirit of the first words of its founding Charter: “We the Peoples”.

    Global Capital, Local Concessions

    Global Capital, Local Concessions

    A Data-Driven Examination of Land Tenure Risk and Industrial Concessions in Emerging Market Economies

    - Prepared for the Rights and Resources Initiative by The Munden Project

     

    Using geospatial data from 12 emerging market economies (EMEs), this analysis attempts to guide investors in emerging markets by shedding light on a difficult problem: overlapping land claims that diminish the value and viability of industrial concessions. It refers to this as “land tenure risk”. From these datasets and an examination of research and financial information, the report concludes that land tenure risk is a statistically significant source of risk in EME concession investments, and extends across all land-dependent sectors regardless of concession type.

    Community Guide to Getting a Fair Deal from Companies and Investors

    Community Guide to Getting a Fair Deal from Companies and Investors

    - The Sustainable Development Institute (SDI), Namati

     

    The purpose of this guide is to help communities decide if they want to share their community lands and natural resources with outside companies or investors. Some companies or investors may want communities' lands or forests to grow oil palm or rubber, or to do logging. This means deciding not only if a company or investor should operate in one's community, but how and where they should operate and what the community should receive in return. This guide helps make those critical decisions.

    Agribusiness Large-Scale Land Acquisitions and Human Rights in Southeast Asia

    Agribusiness Large-Scale Land Acquisitions and Human Rights in Southeast Asia

    Sophi Chao, Editor - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    A update on the status of agribusiness and large-scale land acquisitions in Southeast Asia.

    Rights and Resources Group Audited Financial Statements

    Rights and Resources Group Audited Financial Statements

    Years Ended December 31, 2012 and 2011

    - Aronson & Company

     

    These are the audited financial statements for the Rights and Resources Group for years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011.

    Indigenous Peoples and Governance in REDD+ Readiness in Panama

    Indigenous Peoples and Governance in REDD+ Readiness in Panama

    NELSON CUÉLLAR, SUSAN KANDEL, ANDREW DAVIS AND FAUSTO LUNA WITH THE COLLABORATION OF OSCAR DÍAZ AND XENIA ORTIZ - PRISMA

     

    This report examines the impact REDD+ has had on Panama. In particular, it examines the roles played by various stakeholders (government, NGOs, Indigenous Peoples, rural communities, and the private sector) in managing forests and mitigating the negative effects of climate change.

    Persistence and Change

    Persistence and Change

    Review of 30 years of community forestry in Nepal

    - Government of Nepal Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation

     

    This report provides a 30 year review of community forestry in Nepal. It is the first national study of its kind, examining the impacts of community forestry since the establishment of the national program 30 years ago.

    PUEBLOS INDÍGENAS Y GOBERNANZA EN LA PREPARACIÓN PARA REDD+

    PUEBLOS INDÍGENAS Y GOBERNANZA EN LA PREPARACIÓN PARA REDD+

    NELSON CUÉLLAR, SUSAN KANDEL, ANDREW DAVIS Y FAUSTO LUNA CON LA COLABORACIÓN DE OSCAR DÍAZ Y XENIA ORTIZ - PRISMA

     

    Desde su incorporación en las negociaciones de la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático (CMNUCC) en el año 2005, las iniciativas sobre REDD+ han sido extremadamente controversiales. Por un lado, han creado expectativas sobre su potencial para mitigar el cambio climático mientras contribuyen a otros objetivos como conservación de la biodiversidad, reducción de la pobreza y fortalecimiento de los medios de vida - especialmente para Pueblos Indígenas y comunidades forestales. Por otro lado, REDD+ plantea serias amenazas de convertirse en otra fuente más de presiones sobre los bosques, junto a la demanda.

    Global Indigenous Preparatory Conference for the United Nations High Level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly to be known as the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples 10 – 12 June 2013,

    Global Indigenous Preparatory Conference for the United Nations High Level Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly to be known as the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples 10 – 12 June 2013,

    Alta Document Outcome

    Indigenous Peoples and Nations

     

    This document details the results of the Alta Global Indigenous Peoples' Preparatory Meeting for the High Level Panel Meeting of the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples, which was held in Alta Norway from 9-12 June 2013. The meeting was hosted by the Sami Parliament of Norway. There were 700 participants from various regions around the globe (Arctic, Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribean, North America, Pacific, Russia/Eastern Europe/Transcaucasia). Also in attendance, were the Global Indigenous Women's Caucus as well as the Global Indigenous Youth Caucus.

    UNASUR: Opciones de participaci de la sociedad civil

    UNASUR: Opciones de participaci de la sociedad civil

    Hacia una estrategia de incidencia en unasur y el bndes

    Héctor-León Moncayo Salcedo - ILSA

     

    Una estrategia de incidencia en UNASUR y el BNDES.

    Development of timber and non-timber forest products’ production and market strategies for improvement of smallholders’ livelihoods in Indonesia

    Development of timber and non-timber forest products’ production and market strategies for improvement of smallholders’ livelihoods in Indonesia

    - ICRAF

     

    Combining tree planting with Tops management has been an important part of local farmers’ livelihoods’ strategies for a long time, with each element playing a different role. Integration of improved production and marketing of smallholders’ timber and NTFPs is likely to improve livelihoods and with better management at the landscape level. The project aims to identify, enhance and expand smallholders’ involvement in the management of commercial, forestry-based products at different spatial scales in Java and eastern Indonesia.

    RRI's Rationale for Engagement in Countries

    RRI's Rationale for Engagement in Countries

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This document describes the rationale for RRI's engagement in 17 developing countries around the world.

    Realising REDD+

    Realising REDD+

    National strategy and policy options

    Arild Angelsen, Maria Brockhaus, Markku Kanninen, Erin Sills, William D. Sunderlin, and Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff - CIFOR

     

    This book examines what REDD+ at the national level might look like in four areas: institutions and processes to build the REDD+ framework, broad policy reforms to enable REDD+ implementation, sectoral policies to change incentives, and demonstration activities to test and learn from different approaches.

    Analysing REDD+

    Analysing REDD+

    Challenges and choices

    Arild Angelsen, Maria Brockhaus, William D. Sunderlin and Louis V. Verchot - CIFOR

     

    The book examines the transformation of REDD+ through the years, what has led to that transformation, how it has affected national policies, and what REDD+ looks like on the ground. Moreover, it seeks to identify the main challenges in designing and implementing REDD+, as well as explore the choices that need to be made to enable REDD+ to become more effective, efficient and equitable.

    Large-scale mining in Colombia

    Large-scale mining in Colombia

    Human rights violations past, present and future

    - U.S. Office on Colombia

     

    Large-scaling mining is a significant source of income for the Colombian economy. In the past 12 years, over 1.5 million hectares of land have been sold off for this purpose. The report addresses how large-scale mining has affected both the environment and human rights in Colombia.

    Tomándole el pulso a REDD+ en Centroamérica

    Tomándole el pulso a REDD+ en Centroamérica

    Procesos, actores e implicaciones para la gobernanza territorial

    Nelson Cuéllar, Andrew Davis, con colaboración de Susan Kandel - PRISMA

     

    Este documento forma parte de los resultados del proyecto Strengthening Alternative REDD+ Strate-gies in Central America, ejecutado por la Fundación PRISMA, con el auspicio de Climate Works. Con este proyecto se busca contribuir a una mejor comprensión de los procesos y actores vinculados con REDD+ en la región, enfatizando la perspectiva de las comunidades rurales y los pueblos indígenas, y cómo dichos procesos inciden en las condiciones de gobernanza territorial en Centroamérica.

    El panorama para REDD+ en Centroamérica: Orientaciones, estrategias y temas críticos

    El panorama para REDD+ en Centroamérica: Orientaciones, estrategias y temas críticos

    REDD+ y dinámicas territoriales en Centroamérica

    - PRISMA

     

    Este documento contribuye al diálogo sobre REDD+ en Centroamérica en contextos de acelerados cambios económicos y dinámicas territoriales que impulsan nuevas disputas, conflictos y dilemas. Los debates en la región incluyen cuestionamientos de si un eventual mecanismo REDD+ se sumaría a estas presiones, agudizando las amenazas sobre los territorios o si, por el contrario, podría contribuir a encontrar nuevas rutas para fortalecer los derechos y los medios de vida de pueblos indígenas y comunidades rurales.

    Améliorer la gouvernance forestière : Une comparaison des APV FLEGT et de leur impact

    Améliorer la gouvernance forestière : Une comparaison des APV FLEGT et de leur impact

    An Bollen et Saskia Ozinga - FERN

     

    Les Accords de partenariat volontaire sont des outils innovants destinés à l’amélioration de la gouvernance des forêts. Ce rapport examine le contenu des six APV actuels et permet d’identifier les différences et les similarités existant entre ces accords. L’analyse porte sur six questions clés que les ONG européennes et les pays APV ont identifiées comme étant essentielles pour l’amélioration de la gouvernance dans le secteur forestier. Le rapport se termine par des recommandations destinées à toutes les personnes impliquées dans le processus de l’APV, et rappelle la nécessité de se focaliser sur une mise en œuvre efficace et d’étendre le processus pluripartite inclusif à d’autres matières premières et processus.

    A Changing China: Implications for Developing Countries

    A Changing China: Implications for Developing Countries

    Philip Schellekens - World Bank

     

    This report analyzes the economic effects of China's growing power on developing countries.

    CED: Rapport sur la Transparence dans le secteur foncier au Cameroun

    CED: Rapport sur la Transparence dans le secteur foncier au Cameroun

    - CED

     

    Ledit rapport analyse principalement la transparence dans les cessions aux agro-industries entre autres le cadre juridique, les informations sur les compagnies, l'accès aux processus de prise de décision, les relations entre les compagnies et les communautés, les droits des communautés, les impacts environnementaux des activités des compagnies.

    CED: Rèsumè du Rapport sur la Transparence dans le secteur foncier au Cameroun

    CED: Rèsumè du Rapport sur la Transparence dans le secteur foncier au Cameroun

    - CED

     

    Ledit rapport analyse principalement la transparence dans les cessions aux agro-industries entre autres le cadre juridique, les informations sur les compagnies, l'accès aux processus de prise de décision, les relations entre les compagnies et les communautés, les droits des communautés, les impacts environnementaux des activités des compagnies.

    Attribution of CO2 emissions from Brazilian deforestation to consumers between 1990 and 2010

    Attribution of CO2 emissions from Brazilian deforestation to consumers between 1990 and 2010

    Jonas Karstensen, Glen P Peters and Robbie M Andrew - Center for International Climate and Environmental Research—Oslo (CICERO), Norway

     

    Efforts to reduce deforestation to mitigate climate change and to conserve biodiversity are taking place on a global scale. While many studies have estimated the emissions occurring from deforestation, few studies have quantified the domestic and international drivers sustaining deforestation rates. In this study, the authors establish the link between Brazilian deforestation and production of cattle and soybeans, and allocate emissions between 1990 and 2010 along the global supply chain to the countries that consume products dependent on Brazilian deforestation.

    Land Acquisitions in Tanzania

    Land Acquisitions in Tanzania

    Strong Sustainability, Weak Sustainability and the Importance of Comparative Methods

    Mark Purdon - The Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics

     

    This paper distinguished different analytical approaches to the evaluation of the sustainability of large-scale land acquisitions—at both the conceptual and methodological levels in Tanzania. The findings indicate that it should not be assumed that sustainability necessarily hinges on issues of strong sustainability, particularly that all village lands represent critical natural capital.

    Plentiful forests, happy people?

    Plentiful forests, happy people?

    The EU’s FLEGT approach and its impact on human rights and private forestry sustainability schemes

    Karin Buhmann, Iben Nathan

     

    Focusing on potential impact on social sustainability in timber exporting or processing states outside the EU, this article discusses the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) scheme and its regulatory implementation modalities.

    Boletín de noticias - AIDESEP

    Boletín de noticias - AIDESEP

    - AIDESEP

     

    Noticias por RRI Colaborador AIDESEP (Asociación Interétnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana)

    RRI Annual Progress Report 2012

    RRI Annual Progress Report 2012

    - RRI

     

    This annual progress report is prepared in accordance with the integrated reporting framework agreed to by donors to the Rights and Resources Initiative framework proposal, titled "Accelerating reforms in forest tenure and governance to meet priority global challenges: strategic analysis, narratives and networks to advance local rights and development."

    RRI Africa 2013 Workplan

    RRI Africa 2013 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Analysis and Strategy for 2013 organized by region and country.

    RRI Asia 2013 Workplan

    RRI Asia 2013 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Strategy and Analysis for 2013 by country and region.

    RRI Latin America 2013 Workplan

    RRI Latin America 2013 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Strategy and analysis for 2013 by country and region.

    RRI Strategic Priorities for 2013

    RRI Strategic Priorities for 2013

    - RRI

     

    RRI strategic priorities for 2013. Includes overarching priorities, strategic analysis, networking support, communications and outreach, strategic initiatives, country and regional initiatives, coalition coordination, and operations.

    RRI Global Programs 2013 Workplan

    RRI Global Programs 2013 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    The Global Programs Workplan for 2013 was developed by RRG in collaboration with Partners and Collaborators. The fourth annual Global Programs Planning Meeting was convened along with the Regional Planning Meeting in Washington, DC in November 2012. During that meeting Partners, Collaborators and RRI Fellows discussed and deliberated upon the strategies, activities and points of collaboration for 2013.

    UNGA Human Rights council: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter

    UNGA Human Rights council: Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier De Schutter

    Addendum: Mission to Cameroon

    - UN

     

    This is a report on the mission to Cameroon undertaken by the Special Rapporteur on the right to food from 16 to 23 July 2012. After providing a brief introduction on the mission, the report describes the food insecurity situation in the country, including the particularly worrying situation of the inhabitants of the northern regions and of marginalized and vulnerable groups; and the efforts undertaken to limit food insecurity (sect. II). The report then presents the legislative and institutional framework in which the right to food is ensured (sect. III) and analyses the three most important elements of the right to food, namely, improving the availability of food, access to food and sustainability (sect. IV). The report examines how Cameroon is applying the principle of using the maximum of available resources, including revenue from the harnessing of natural resources, to ensure the right to food (sect. V). The key elements of a national strategy on the right to food are described in section VI. Recommendations are addressed to the Government and to international organizations and development partners.

    AGNU Conseil de droits de l'homme: Rapport du Rapporteur spécial sur le droit à l’alimentation, Olivier De Schutter

    AGNU Conseil de droits de l'homme: Rapport du Rapporteur spécial sur le droit à l’alimentation, Olivier De Schutter

    Additif: Mission au Cameroun

    - UN

     

    Ce rapport porte sur la mission du Rapporteur spécial sur le droit à l’alimentation effectuée au Cameroun du 16 au 23 juillet 2012. Après une brève introduction sur cette mission, le rapport fait le point sur la situation de l’insécurité alimentaire dans le pays, y compris la situation particulièrement préoccupante vécue par les habitants des régions du Grand Nord et celle des groupes marginalisés ou vulnérables, et sur les efforts entrepris pour limiter cette insécurité alimentaire (Section II). Le rapport présente ensuite le cadre législatif et institutionnel qui garantit le droit à l’alimentation (Section III) et analyse les trois axes importants pour la réalisation du droit à l’alimentation : l’amélioration de la disponibilité de l’alimentation, de l’accès à cette alimentation, et de la soutenabilité (Section IV). Enfin, le rapport étudie comment le Cameroun met en oeuvre le principe d’utilisation maximale des ressources disponibles pour la réalisation du droit à l’alimentation, y compris dans l’utilisation des revenus tirés de l’exploitation des ressources naturelles (Section V). La section VI détaille les éléments clefs d’une stratégie nationale pour le droit à l’alimentation. Des recommandations sont adressées au Gouvernement ainsi qu’aux organisations internationales et partenaires de développement.

    CED and IIED: From law school to the field

    CED and IIED: From law school to the field

    Community lawyers in Cameroon

    Samuel Nguiffo - CED, IIED

     

    The Community Legal Field Worker initiative (CLFW), run by the Centre for Environment and Development (CED) in Cameroon, was designed to deal with major gaps in capacity to safeguard indigenous rights to land and forests. This capacity gap included weak knowledge amongst urban trained lawyers of the rural context and indigenous rights. A two-year field placement for lawyers committed to operating as advocates for the communities and trying to obtain the best for them in accordance with the law, has resulted in some important outcomes and lessons for building future programmes of this type. The improved understanding of communities of their rights and procedures for protecting them was demonstrated by the indigenous Baka’s abstention in local elections, improved recognition of indigenous chiefs and customary law, stronger representation in local councils and legal proceedings against Bantu farmers resulting in the return of previously confiscated lands. This paper presents the key steps taken to implement the CLFW tool, the outcomes and lessons learned.

    De la Faculté de Droit au terrain

    De la Faculté de Droit au terrain

    Des juristes communautaires au Cameroun

    Samuel Nguiffo - CED, IIED

     

    Le projet Community Legal Field Workers (CLFW) été mis en place par le Centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement (CED) au Cameroun en vue de pallier le manque substantiel de capacité à protéger les droits des populations autochtones relatifs aux ressources forestières et foncières. Ce manque de capacité provenait notamment du fait que les jeunes juristes diplômés en ville connaissaient très peu le contexte rural et les droits des populations autochtones. L’expérience consistant à affecter de jeunes juristes sur le terrain pour une durée de deux ans en tant qu’avocats au service des communautés, qui essaient d’obtenir ce qu’il y a de mieux pour les communautés dans le respect du droit, a fourni des résultats et enseignements importants pour la conception d’autres projets similaires à l’avenir. La meilleure compréhension par les communautés de leurs droits et des procédures pour les faire respecter s’est notamment traduite par l’abstention des autochtones Baka lors des élections locales, une meilleure reconnaissance des chefs autochtones et du droit coutumier, une représentation plus forte au sein des conseils municipaux, ou encore des poursuites judiciaires contre des Bantous ayant conduit à la restitution de terres confisquées. Cet article décrit les principales étapes adoptées pour mettre en oeuvre l’outil CLFW, les résultats et les leçons apprises.

    Impacto de las Industrias Extractivas en los Derechos Colectivos sobre Territorios y Bosques de los Pueblos y las Comunidades

    Impacto de las Industrias Extractivas en los Derechos Colectivos sobre Territorios y Bosques de los Pueblos y las Comunidades

    Margarita Flórez - Rights and Resources Initiative, A s o c i a c i ó n A m b i e n t e y S o c i e d a d

     

    En este trabajo se recopilan y analizan algunos aspectos del impacto de las industrias extractivas. Se hace énfasis en la minería dado su aumento en intensidad, cantidad y cobertura en las dos últimas décadas, particularmente sobre territorios de los Pueblos Indígenas y Afrodescendientes que habitan en zonas objeto de las actividades de esta industria. Así mismo se estudian las repercusiones sobre los bosques naturales.

     

    Associated Documents

    Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in Central and West Africa

    Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in Central and West Africa

    Preliminary Assessment of Progress Made since Yaoundé 2009

    Robinson Djeukam, Phil René Oyono, Boubacar Diarra, François Tiayon, Hortense Ngono - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    For the past few decades, statutory tenure systems in African countries were subjected to small legal changes whose main feature was the devolution of rights and responsibilities to peripheral actors; local communities, in particular. In countries in other sub-continents (Latin America, South-East Asia, and the Far East) more decisive and substantive changes have signi!cantly affected the structure of land and forest tenure rights by recognizing and allocating property rights to local and indigenous communities. In order to lay the foundation for more relevant legal developments and to seek a common vision, West and Central African countries organized an international conference on “Forest Tenure, Governance, and Enterprise” which took place in Yaoundé in 2009. New challenges - such as those related to large-scale land acquisitions - were discussed and recommendations were proposed. This report provides a preliminary assessment of their implementation. Major emphasis was put on two bold recommendations: that Central and West African countries take steps, by 2015, to fundamentally reform their tenure systems, in order to legally recognize community owned forests and to double the land area under community ownership within that timeframe and that sub-regional and continental organizations develop tools that promote community tenure rights and harmonize national legal frameworks.

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: Rapid market appraisal of agricultrual, plantation and forestry commodities in South and Southeast Sulawesi

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: Rapid market appraisal of agricultrual, plantation and forestry commodities in South and Southeast Sulawesi

    Working paper

    Aulia Perdana, James M Roshetko

     

    This working paper identifies and explains the findings in agricultural, commodity crops and forestry commodities, which are important to the community at the AgFor project sites. The project sites are located in Bantaeng and Bulukumba districts, South Sulawesi, and Konawe and Kolaka districts in Southeast Sulawesi. The critical components highlighted in this working paper include: types of chosen products, products' value chain, involved market agents, the role of women in the value chain, the rising issues, and opportunities to overcome these issues.

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: Agroforestry extension needs at the community level in AgFor project sites in South and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: Agroforestry extension needs at the community level in AgFor project sites in South and Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Working paper

    Endri Martini, Jusupta Tarigan, Pratiknyo Purnomosidhi, Andi Prahmono, Mulus Surgana, Anang Setiawan, Megawati, Elok Mulyoutami, Badri Dwi Meldy, Syamsidar, Rahma Talui, Janudianto, Syuanto, James M. Roshetko

     

    This agroforestry extension assessment study was conducted as part of the baseline study undertaken to support programmes implemented in the Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi: Linking Knowledge with Action project (the 'AgFor project'), which is funded by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). The objectives of this study were to list and analyse existing agroforestry extension practices that have been implemented at community level, and to list community needs for potential agroforestry extension services that could be implemented under the AgFor project. Focus group discussions at community level were held to collect information on types of priority species in local livelihoods, existing and potential extension activities, demonstration plots, cross-visit programmes, needs for marketing training, gender preferences regarding extension programmes, and the potential media communications used in extension activities. The results of this baseline survey were useful for designing and implementing the extension activities in the AgFor project.

    FERN: Improving Forest Governance

    FERN: Improving Forest Governance

    A Comparison of FLEGT VPAs and their Impact

    An Bollen, Saskia Ozinga

     

    Voluntary Partnership Agreements - VPAs - are an innovative tool for improving forest governance. They are central to the Eu's Action Plan to control illegal logging, adopted in 2003. Since then VPA negotiations have been concluded with six timber-producing countries: in chronological order, Ghana, the Republic of Congo, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Indonesia and Liberia. Six more VPAs are currently being negotiated.

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: Gender, livelihood and land in South and Souteast Sualwesi

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: Gender, livelihood and land in South and Souteast Sualwesi

    Working paper

    Elok Mulyoutami, Endri Martini, Noviana Khususiyah, Isnurdiansyah, Suyanto

     

    As part of an assessment of community livelihood systems of the Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi (AgFor) project, gender is an important factor to capture the different livelihood options of the community, and their strategies to improve those options, in relation to environmental management. The underlying premise is that women and men have different strategies in managing natural resources that lead to different problems, and also different types of solutions. This study focused on gender issues, community livelihood options and the land management. The methods of gathering primary data were structural group discussions and household interviews covering two districts in South Sulawesi, and two districts in South Sulawesi. Gender gaps were determined at district and provincial levels using the Gender Development Index, Human Development Index and Gender Empowerment Index. Within these indexes, female participation in decision making was indicated as very low while their contribution to community income was also much lower than men. However, in reality, at the community level, it was seen that women’s participation in decision making was potentially high in conducive situations in respecting their rights to the land, supporting their contribution to market, as well as acknowledging their contribution to household and community income.

    The Carbon Budget of South Asia

    The Carbon Budget of South Asia

    P.K. Patra, J.G. Canadell, R.A. Houghton, S.L. Piao, N.-H. Oh, P. Ciais, K.R. Majunath, A. Chhabra, T. Wang, T. Bhattacharya, P. Bousquet, J. Hartman, A. Ito, E. Mayorga, Y. Niwa, P. A. Raymond, V. V. S. S. Sarma, Rodel D. Lasco

     

    The source and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2)and methane (CH4) due to anthropogenic and natural biospheric activities were estimated for the South Asian region (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Taking all CO2 and CH4 fluxes together, the authors' best estimate of the net land–atmosphere CO2-equivalent flux is a net source of 334 TgCyr−1 for the South Asian region during the 2000s.

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry Guides for Field Practitioners

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry Guides for Field Practitioners

    Xu Jianchu, Agustin R. Mercado, Jun He, Ian Dawson

     

    The emergence of agroforestry as a sloping land management practice in DPR Korea highlights the growth of technology innovations together with user group processes. A user-friendly, bottom-up participatory process is facilitated by technicians and forest rangers and explores new opportunities for the development of locally appropriate technology through interactive learning processes.

    Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Watershed Services of the Layawan Watershed in Oroquieta City, Philippines

    Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Watershed Services of the Layawan Watershed in Oroquieta City, Philippines

    Margaret Mejorada Calderon, Kharmina Paola Angat Anit, Leo Kris Mariano Palao, Rodel D. Lasco

     

    Watersheds provide numerous ecosystem services to downstream communities often with no cost to them. Although these services are valuable to humans, they do not have monetary values attached to them, making their total economic value quite ambiguous. This ambiguity results in the non-optimal use of the natural resources that leads to the degradation of the watersheds. One approach that could address this issue is payments for ecological services (PES). The main objective of this study was to estimate the willingness-to-pay for improved watershed services by domestic water users within the Layawan Watershed in Oroquieta City. It employed the contingent valuation method to assess the willingness to pay of water users. More than 50% of the respondents voted positively to the referendum question which is whether they are willing to pay a certain amount for the conservation of the Layawan Watershed or not. The computed mean willingness to pay amounts were Php 57.48 and Php 53.89 per month per household for the parametric and non-parametric estimations, respectively. These amounts translate to 0.68% of the average monthly household income of the sample respondents, which is approximately Php 8 198.84. The amounts computed may serve as bases for a water user fee that may be collected from the domestic water users in the Layawan Watershed as buyers of the watershed services.

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: Profitability of land-use systems in South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi

    World Agroforestry Center: Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi series: Profitability of land-use systems in South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi

    Working Paper

    Arif Rahmanulloh, M. Sofiyuddin, Suyanto

     

    This profitability assessment is an early effort to generate baseline information for the Agroforestry and Forestry in Sulawesi: Linking Knowledge with Action project (the ‘AgFor project’), for implementation in two provinces, South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi. The study collected information on existing farming systems and estimated profitability for each land use. The profitability indicators used in the study are: net present value (NPV), equivalent annuity and return to labour. Our estimation shows that in South Sulawesi the most profitable land-use system using the annual equity measure was clove gardens, followed by coconut-cacao mixed-gardens and coconut-gardens. Timber-garden systems generated the highest return to labour of the other land uses, while the coconut used for sugar system generated the lowest (USD 6 per day). In Southeast Sulawesi, the most profitable land-use system using the annual equity measure was timber-gardens (teak), followed by pepper monoculture, and patchouli monoculture. Timber-gardens (teak) generated the highest return to labour of the others, while the cacao monoculture system generated the lowest (USD 10 per day).

    World Agroforestry Center: Accountability and Local Level Initiative to Reduce Emission from Deforestation and Degradation in Indonesia

    World Agroforestry Center: Accountability and Local Level Initiative to Reduce Emission from Deforestation and Degradation in Indonesia

    Project Report

    - World Agroforestry Centre

     

    The Accountability and Local Level Initiatives to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Indonesia (ALLREDDI) program is implemented by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) in partnership with the Directorate General of Forest Planning, Ministry of Forestry (Ditjen Planalogi), Brawijaya University (UB) and the Indonesian Centre for Agricultural Land Resources Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian Research and Development (ICALRRD) through support from the European Commission (EU) under the Environment and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources, Including Energy program. The agreement was signed in December 2008 and ALLREDDI activities began in January 2009. This project is designed to contribute to: the development of national carbon accounting and monitoring systems in Indonesia that are in compliance with the Tier 3 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reporting guidelines; the development of technical capacities at sub-national and national levels; and the design of mechanism for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) in five pilot areas in western, central and eastern Indonesia.

    Why smallholders plant native timber trees away from the forest margin

    Why smallholders plant native timber trees away from the forest margin

    Lessons from Leyte, the Philippines

    Fernando Santos Martin, Manuel Bertomeu, Meine van Noordwijk, Rafael Navarro

     

    As long as natural forests can be accessed as local sources of timber, there is little incentive for farmers to grow timber on their own land. Early successes with national programs for farmer tree planting in the Philippines were achieved with fast growing trees – that brought disappointingly low levels of income once harvested, as the quality of wood was low. Meanwhile, some farmers took the initiative to grow high-value, slower-growing native timbers on their farms, planting trees between their maize. What are the prospects for this? Which types of farmers are doing it? Is it profitable? What policy measures could support or enhance such agroforestation of the landscape? A recent study looked at several of these questions at the island of Leyte in the Philippines. The results have implications for other forest margin locations.

    Payments for Watershed Protection Services: Emerging Lessons from the Philippines

    Payments for Watershed Protection Services: Emerging Lessons from the Philippines

    Daniel Gaitán Cremaschi, Rodel D. Lasco, Rafaela Jane Delfino

     

    There is growing interest on payments for ecosystem services (PES) in developing countries including the Philippines. Watersheds have been degraded through deforestation and subsequent conversion to other land cover, principally for agriculture. In the last decade, several Payments for Watershed Services schemes have been implemented and this paper is an attempt to assess the form of incentives or rewards that have been provided to upland communities in a number of sites under different management leadership in the Philippines. We reviewed four cases specifically related to watershed services in the: 1) Bakun Watershed, 2) Maasin Watershed, 3) Sibuyan Watershed, and 4) Baticulan Watershed. The case studies of varying stages of implementation has shown that the chances of success of PES schemes in promoting watershed conservation and rehabilitation as well as in improving the livelihoods of upland communities is constrained by incomplete information and knowledge about the interaction between ecosystem properties and provision of services, and the difficulty in establishing voluntary participation and conditionality of payments. In this paper, we argued that institutions may enable or hinder the successful implementation of PES. The role of the local government as intermediaries is crucial in the process of establishing PES more particularly in the information dissemination and education of the key stakeholders. The case studies also showed how PES programs are reinforced by the presence of non-government organizations.

    2012 - Independent Monitors Report

    2012 - Independent Monitors Report

    Kevin Murray - Kevin Murray Strategic Consulting

     

    When RRI was launched in 2005, its leadership developed a case for support outlining what the Initiative hoped to achieve during the first five years of its existence and how it would fulfill those ambitious goals. That Framework Proposal was successful in attracting sufficient resources to RRI to make possible the implementation of a significant part of that original concept. 2012 was the final year in that first Framework Proposal period. This year, RRI was charged with implementing a full year of actions geared toward advancing forest tenure reform globally, as well as finalizing an ambitious strategic assessment process that, while affirming many of the key concepts in the original case for support, also challenged the Initiative to explore some very significant changes.

    Investments into the Agribusiness, Extractive, and Infrastructure Sectors of Liberia

    Investments into the Agribusiness, Extractive, and Infrastructure Sectors of Liberia

    An Overview

    D. Bryson Ogden - Rights and Resources Group

     

    This paper seeks to characterize and quantify the regional investment trends of organizations investing in Liberian agribusiness, infrastructure, and extractive industries, to better understand their roles in land acquisition as related to deforestation and human rights. Though the methodology is here applied to Liberia, the same analysis will be applied to other countries including Cameroon, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Colombia, and Peru.

    FPP: The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and complain resolution

    FPP: The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) and complain resolution

    Guidance on submitting a complaint for civil society organizations and local communities

    Sophie Chao - FPP

     

    The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a not-for-profit association formed in 2004 in response to the urgent and pressing global call for sustainably produced palm oil. The objective of this association is to promote the growth and use of sustainable oil palm products through credible global standards and the engagement of a wide range of stakeholders. The RSPO brings together stakeholders from seven sectors of the palm oil industry: oil palm producers, palm oil processors or traders, consumer goods manufacturers, retailers, banks and investors, environmental or nature conservation NGOs and social or development NGOs. This booklet is produced by the Forest Peoples Programme (FPP), who has been closely involved in the RSPO’s standard setting and public review processes, although it is not a member of the RSPO. Over the past decade, FPP and its grassroots, national and international partners in Africa and Southeast Asia have sought to ensure that the RSPO both adopts and upholds standards consistent with international human rights law and respect for the rights of local communities and indigenous peoples. This document sets out the RSPO’s system for resolving disputes. It provides basic information and guidance to civil society organisations and affected local communities on how the RSPO complaint process works and the various steps involved in submitting a complaint. In separate documents we have sought to summarise our own experiences with the effectiveness of this system. In our view, there remains a wide gap between how the RSPO Complaints System ought to function and what it is actually able to achieve. We have been encouraging the RSPO to upgrade its process and in the meantime offer this guide in the belief that having access to an imperfect system is better than none. This document is based largely on information from the RSPO website, but has been produced independently. Readers are recommended to consult www.rspo.org for further details.

    Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in West and Central Africa

    Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in West and Central Africa

    A Preliminary Assessment of Progress Made Since the Yaoundé 2009 Conference

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This policy brief looks at land and forest tenure reforms in West and Central Africa. It uses the recommendations from the 2009 International Conference in Yaoundé on Forest Tenure, Governance, and Enterprise as its points of reference, particularly those calling on Central and West African states, and regional and sub-regional institutions to initiate or accelerate reforms to statutory tenure systems that would lead to the “legal recognition of community owned forests” or the “doubling of land areas under community ownership” by 2015.

    Social and Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Africa

    Social and Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Africa

    With a Focus on West and Central Africa

    Michael Richards, Consultant - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This study focuses on the reported (as opposed to predicted or likely) social and environmental impacts of large-scale land transactions in Africa, with a focus on West and Central Africa. The core of the report is an analysis of 18 case studies that are among the best-documented LSLAs in terms of their impacts. These case studies cover Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. Impacts were classified into five groups: tenure impacts, land governance process and impacts, economic and livelihood impacts, human and sociocultural impacts, and environmental impacts.

     

    Associated Documents

    Impacts sociaux et environnementaux des acquisitions de terres à grande échelle destinées à l’agriculture en Afrique, en particulier en Afrique occidentale et centrale

    Impacts sociaux et environnementaux des acquisitions de terres à grande échelle destinées à l’agriculture en Afrique, en particulier en Afrique occidentale et centrale

    Michael Richards, Consultant - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    La présente étude porte sur les impacts sociaux et environnementaux relevés, par opposition aux impacts prévus ou probables, des transactions de terres à grande échelle (ATGE) en Afrique, avec une attention particulière à l’Afrique occidentale et centrale (AOC). L’élément central du rapport repose sur une analyse de 18 études de cas qui sont parmi les ATGE les mieux documentées en termes d’impacts. Cependant, ces études ne constituent pas un échantillon représentatif. Les 18 études de cas concernent le Cameroun, le Ghana, le Libéria, le Mali, le Rwanda, le Sénégal et la Sierra Leone en AOC, et le Mozambique, la Tanzanie et la Zambie en Afrique de l’Est.

     

    Associated Documents

    Land, People, and the State in Afghanistan: 2002-2012

    Land, People, and the State in Afghanistan: 2002-2012

    Liz Alden Wily - United States Institute for Peace, Afghanistan Research and Evaluatino Unit

     

    This paper reviews the formal treatment of land rights in Afghanistan over the post-Bonn decade (2002 - 2012). The objective is to document the developments in the recent past to better understand present and possible future trends.

    Migración, medios de vida rurales y manejo de recursos naturales

    Migración, medios de vida rurales y manejo de recursos naturales

    Susan Kandel, Susanna Hecht, Abelardo Morales, Nelson Cuellar - PRISMA, UCLA, FLACSO

     

    Este libro presenta los resultados del proyecto “Entendiendo los vínculos entre migración y manejo de recursos naturales” desarrollado entre octubre de 2010 y junio de 2012. Este proyecto fue coordinado por PRISMA y auspiciado por el Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo (IDRC, por sus siglas en inglés) de Canadá y la Oificina Regional de la Fundación Ford para México y Centroamérica. Además forma parte de los esfuerzos que realiza PRISMA para generar y movilizar conocimiento relevante para iniciativas que fortalezcan los medios de vida rurales y el manejo de los recursos naturales.

    Migration, Rural Livelihoods & Natural Resource Management

    Migration, Rural Livelihoods & Natural Resource Management

    Susan Kandel, Susanna Hecht, Abelardo Morales, Nelson Cuellar - PRISMA, UCLA, FLACSO

     

    This volume presents the results of the project “Understanding linkages between migration and natural resource management,” carried out from October 2010 to June 2012. This project was coordinated by PRISMA and underwritten by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Canada and the Ford Foundation Regional Office for Mexico and Latin America. This book is part of PRISMA’s commitment to produce and mobilize relevant knowledge for initiatives that strengthen rural livelihoods and natural resource management.

    Charting New Waters

    Charting New Waters

    State of Watershed Payments 2012

    Genevieve Bennett, Nathaniel Carroll, Katherine Hamilton

     

    This report is the second installment in the “State of Watershed Payments” series, an effort to globally track the size, scope, and direction of investments in watershed services (IWS) as well as the ecological infrastructure from which they flow. Throughout this report we use the term ‘investments in watershed services’ to cover the broad diversity of incentive- or market-based mechanisms being used to protect the natural infrastructure of watersheds – including payments for ecosystem services (PES), payments for watershed services (PWS), water quality trading markets, and reciprocal or in-kind agreements. Data comes from surveys, interviews, and desk research on over 200 programs worldwide in more than 30 countries.

    The Context of REDD+ in Nepal

    The Context of REDD+ in Nepal

    Challenges and opportunities

    Naya Sharma Paudel, Dil Bahadur Khatri, Dil Raj Khanal, Rahul Karki - ForestAction Nepal

     

    This report provides an overview of Nepal’s initiatives on readiness for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+), the political and socioeconomic context in which they are taking place, and their implications for conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries. It examines land use change and the drivers and underlying causes of deforestation. It evaluates the effectiveness, efficiency and equity of current REDD+ efforts in Nepal and analyses the prospects for and challenges to REDD+ implementation going forward. The report draws on multiple data sources and diverse methodologies. It provides an overview of government plans and policies, legislation, and views of experts on development, forestry and the REDD+ sector in Nepal, as well as ongoing debates in Nepal on issues such as forest governance, benefit-sharing and carbon assessment.

    Landowners or Laborers

    Landowners or Laborers

    What choice will developing countries make?

    RRI

     

    During 2012, a key choice facing developing countries revealed itself ever more starkly. Would they choose a development path built on inclusiveness, respect for the rights of their citizens, and the rule of law? Or would they seek a short-cut to development and opt to hand over community land and natural resources to international investors and national elites? Would they turn their rural citizens from landowners into landless laborers? It became clear during the year that many countries were desperate to replicate the recent economic successes of China and Brazil. Many are tired of being poor and are eager to see their economies grow quickly. Countries of sub-Saharan Africa aspire to be “lion economies,” following in the footsteps of Asia’s “tiger economies.” But the parallels are poor. Brazil, China, and Asia’s tigers drove economic development by liberating local enterprises and establishing local property rights. In Africa, nations have surrendered economic and political control of their land and resources, in effect, replicating economic systems created during the colonial era driven by resource extraction and export. The lesson of history is clear. The inequalities and disempowerment resulting from these extractive political and economic systems are replicating the “resource curse,” in which nations become trapped in poverty and are riven by resentment and internal conflict, with growing risks of political turmoil. If countries choose open and inclusive democratic systems they can avoid this fate. But they will need to recognize local property rights and develop strong civil societies that keep citizens informed and hold leaders to account.1 RRI’s annual review of forest tenure data highlights the different choices made by forest countries over the past decade. Some have chosen to make progressive changes to their forest ownership systems. Yet, others have stagnated and avoided recognizing the full rights of forest-dwelling citizens. In 2012, some developing countries took the first steps to embrace such reforms, but many remain on the wrong track. All face major decisions about what type of country they will become. As we look to 2013, we ask: will countries around the developing world choose to be societies of citizen landowners or landless laborers?

     

    Associated Documents

    Propietarios o trabajadores sin tierras Propietarios o trabajadores sin tierras
    ¿En qué convertirán los países en desarrollo a las poblaciones rurales?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Propriétaires fonciers ou paysans sans terre Propriétaires fonciers ou paysans sans terre
    Quel choix feront les pays en voie de développement ?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    The Financial Risks of Insecure Land Tenure

    The Financial Risks of Insecure Land Tenure

    An Investment View

    The Munden Project

     

    In recent years, one of the oldest asset classes in investment – land – has become an issue of international concern and scrutiny. Land acquisitions are being announced at a breakneck pace as companies look to produce more food, wood fiber, minerals and energy. The undeniably high and sustained profit potential of this land is thought to be offset by meager, manageable costs. Not only is the land itself cheap, but the ongoing outlays required to convert that land’s output into saleable goods is quite low. This all seems very compelling when confined to spreadsheets, but as these acquisitions become more common, we are beginning to see substantive discrepancies between investment concept and operational practice. In examining the evidence, a pattern emerges. Many investors and operators have committed time, money and effort without understanding some considerable risks, ones usually considered externalities in the normal course of business. This report gives perspective on one such risk. Completely unknown to most investors, “land tenure” is a catch-all phrase used by field specialists to define a set of problems related to control over a given parcel of land. Property rights in many emerging markets are dysfunctional to the point that ownership of land can be granted to an investor without the tens of thousands of people living on, or dependent on, that land knowing about it. This report shows that unresolved conflicts over land tenure significantly augment the financial risks for companies in infrastructure, mining, agriculture and forestry. By themselves, delays caused by land tenure problems can inflate a project's expenditures by an order of magnitude - and in some cases these losses have even been great enough to endanger the future of the corporate parent itself.

    Maliasili Initiative: Securing Community Land Rights

    Maliasili Initiative: Securing Community Land Rights

    Experiences and insights from working to secure hunter-gatherer and pastoralist land rights in Northern Tanzania

    - Ujamaa Community Resource Team, Pastoral Women's Council, Maliasili Initiatives

     

    In this publication two pioneering grassroots organisations from northern Tanzania examine and present their experiences and insights from their long-term work to secure the land rights of hunter-gatherer and pastoral communities. The case studies were presented at a one-day learning event held on 5th October 2012, when Pastoral Women’s Council (PWC) and Ujamaa Community Resource Team (UCRT) joined together to share and reflect on their work to secure land rights, to learn from each other, and to identify ways to build on their achievements moving forward. The case studies are preceded by a synopsis of the political economy of land rights in Tanzania, providing background to help contextualize the studies. Following this is a summary outline of the case studies, and then a synthesis of the lessons and key points raised during the one day learning event.

    Guide to investing in locally controlled forestry

    Guide to investing in locally controlled forestry

    Dominic Elson - IIED

     

    The guide emerged out of 11 international dialogues that assembled more than 400 people to discuss how to make investing in locally controlled forestry (ILCF) happen. It is a primarily a tool for practical action – providing guidance on how to structure enabling investments and prepare the ground for asset investments that yield acceptable returns and reduced risk, not only for investors, but also for local forest right-holders, national governments and society at large. After providing strong justification for this approach, the guide sets out a framework for structuring investments with tactical advice for building the partnerships necessary for successful ILCF. The core of the guide is a roadmap to successful ILCF that covers the business stages of proposition, establishment, validation, preparation, negotiation and performance management – with practical advice for both investors and forest right-holder groups. Case studies of successful ILCF and a range of useful templates and sources of further information are provided.

    Ensuring that Poor Rural Women Benefit from Forestland Reforms in China

    Ensuring that Poor Rural Women Benefit from Forestland Reforms in China

    Fieldwork Findings and Policy Recommendations

    - Rights and Resources Initiative, Landesa RDI

     

    China has engaged in forestland tenure reform since the 1980s, focusing primarily on decentralizing forestland use rights from the collective to households. However, in over 30 years of reform measures, little attention has been paid to the effects of forestland reform on rural women. This research, conducted by Landesa and funded by RRI, aims to understand the impacts of these reforms as they relate to gender, and their implications for rural women in China.

    Deeper Roots of Historical Injustice

    Deeper Roots of Historical Injustice

    Trends and Challenges in the Forests of India

    - Rights and Resources Initiative, IDRC

     

    This book is a compilation of research and analyses from some of the leading scholars and experts on the Indian forest sector. Their analyses take a critical look at the trends that have shaped the developments in India's forest sector over the past two decades. They analyze key actors, institutions, laws, policies and politics--and unravel the interplay between the factors that influence the direction of economic development and industrialization as well as conservation models; determine the nature and scope of civil rights; and sway policy.

    Undemocratic and Arbitrary

    Undemocratic and Arbitrary

    Control, Regulation and Expropriation of India’s Forest and Common Lands

    - Society for Promotion of Wasteland Development, Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    Control over land and natural resources has recently become a subject of heated debate in India, and is, today, one of the central fault lines of Indian politics. A compendium of case studies on takeover of common lands in India was prepared for the Society for Promotion of Wasteland Development (SPWD) in order to attempt to fill the gap in the available literature on the subject of land takeover in the country. It represents one of the first attempts to look at this issue at the national level, drawing together local situations and experiences into an overall legal and policy framework. This paper seeks both to present a synthesis of the findings of these studies, reflecting the overall situation at the national level, as well as to discuss possible policy actions that can be undertaken.

     

    Associated Documents

    India's Forest and Common Lands India's Forest and Common Lands
    Policy Recommendations for Regulating Control and Minimizing Abuse
    - SPWD, Rights and Resources Initiative
    Tipping the Balance

    Tipping the Balance

    Policies to shape agricultural investments and markets in favour of small-scale farmers

    Bill Vorley, Lorenzo Cotula, Man-Kwun Chan - IIED

     

    A recent wave of large-scale land acquisitions and other commercial investment in agriculture has raised concerns that small-scale producers are being marginalized. This report takes a new look at the role of public policy and market governance in ensuring inclusive sustainable development. It identifies key policy levers and how these tip commercial investments in favour of either small- or large-scale farming, and how policy levers influence market governance to constrain or support the fair sharing of risk and reward between small-scale producers and the rest of the market. A considerable proportion of the report is dedicated to identifying policy elements that can specifically contribute to gender-equitable results. The focus of the analysis is on national policy, with international policy discussed insofar as it affects national policy and investment processes.The work was supported by four country case studies, conducted in Guatemala, Nigeria, Tanzania and the Philippines.

    Securing rights through commodity roundtables?

    Securing rights through commodity roundtables?

    A comparative review

    Sophie Chao, Marcus Colchester, Norman Jiwan

     

    Commodities dominate agricultural production, land use and acquisition, and economic livelihoods across the developing world. Yet commodity production remains one of the greatest challenges for sustainable and equitable economic development, poverty reduction and global environmental stewardship, whether in terms of preventing biodiversity loss, reducing environmental pollution, addressing climate change, promoting rural development, or strengthening governance, land tenure and law enforcement.

    A Case for Farmers and Rural Communities’ Right to Compensation Under China’s Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP)

    A Case for Farmers and Rural Communities’ Right to Compensation Under China’s Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP)

    - Landesa-RDI, Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This paper was authored by Zhu Keliang of Landesa-RDI, in collaboration with RRI. It offers recommendations to reform the policy, law and institutional practices concerning China’s Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) which, if not improved, will result in a massive scale of injustice and poverty in rural China, and jeopardize its own long-term success in ecosystem preservation.

    'Nuestra Tierra, Nuestras Vidas'

    "Nuestra Tierra, Nuestras Vidas"

    Tiempo muerto para la compra masiva de tierras

    - Oxfam

     

    Cada seis días, los inversores extranjeros han estado comprando en los países pobres una superficie de tierra del tamaño de Londres. Los precios de los alimentos están experimentando grandes subidas por tercera vez en cuatro años, lo cual podría incrementar el interés por las tierras a medida que los países ricos intenten garantizar sus suministros alimentarios y que los inversores perciban la tierra como una buena apuesta a largo plazo. Demasiado a menudo los desalojos forzosos de los agricultores pobres son la consecuencia de estas transacciones de tierras, cada vez más habituales en los países en desarrollo.

    Plaidoyer pour une Reforme du Regime juridique des Cessions de Terres a Grande Echelle en Afrique Central

    Plaidoyer pour une Reforme du Regime juridique des Cessions de Terres a Grande Echelle en Afrique Central

    Document cadre

    - Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Bureau Cameroun et Afrique Centrale

     

    Si le phénomène de l'accaparement des terres est mondial, il est plus accentué en Afrique où le tableau publié par Grain montre qu’il n’épargne pratiquement aucun pays de ce continent. Certes il n’y est pas nouveau : il était déjà présent lors de la colonisation, avec le développement de vastes plantations de cultures de rente comme le café, le cacao, l’hévéa, le coton etc., mais il s’est accentué à la faveur des crises alimentaires et financières mondiales de 2008, qui ont poussé les pays dépendant des importations alimentaires et cherchant à externaliser et sécuriser leur production alimentaire nationale à rechercher des terres cultivables, et révélé la terre comme une valeur refuge.

    Sarawak: IOI-Pelita and the community of Long Teran Kanan

    Sarawak: IOI-Pelita and the community of Long Teran Kanan

    Marcus Colchester, Thomas Jalong, Wong Meng Chuo

     

    The State of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo is now one of last frontier areas for palm oil expansion left in Malaysia. This case study looks in some detail at oil palm concessions granted in 1996 to a local joint venture company Rinwood-Pelita on the middle Tinjar river in northern Sarawak which overlaps the customary lands of communities of the Berawan, Kayan and Kenyah peoples. The local enterprise was acquired by the Malaysian transnational palm oil company, IOI, a prominent member of the RSPO, in 2006.

    'Our Land, Our Lives'

    'Our Land, Our Lives'

    Time out on the global land rush

    - Oxfam

     

    In poor countries, foreign investors have been buying an area of land the size of London every six days. With food prices spiking for the third time in four years, interest in land could accelerate again as rich countries try to secure their food supplies and investors see land as a good long-term bet. All too often, forced evictions of poor farmers are a consequence of these rapidly increasing land deals in developing countries.

    «Notre Terre, Notre vie»

    «Notre Terre, Notre vie»

    Halte à la ruée mondiale sur les terres

    - Oxfam

     

    Dans les pays pauvres, les investisseurs étrangers achètent une superficie de terres équivalente à celle de Londres tous les six jours. Alors même que les prix alimentaires flambent pour la troisième fois en quatre ans, les terres risquent de susciter un intérêt encore plus vif si les pays riches tentent de protéger leurs sources d’approvisionnement en produits alimentaires et si les investisseurs voient la terre comme un bon pari à long terme. Trop souvent, les expulsions forcées des agriculteurs pauvres sont la conséquence de ces transactions foncières dont le nombre croît rapidement dans les pays en développement.

    Carta de AIDESEP

    Carta de AIDESEP

    - AIDESEP

     

    Segundo decenio internacional de los derechos de los Pueblos Indigenas. Ano de la integracion nacional y el reconocimiento de nuestra diversidad

    AIDESEP Letter re FIP

    AIDESEP Letter re FIP

    - AIDESEP

     

    Interethnic Association for the Development of the Peruvian Amazon letter for INDUFOR English translation.

    Estrategia de Inversion FIP

    Estrategia de Inversion FIP

    - AIDESEP

     

    Formato de Perfil de Proyecto para el Fortalecimiento de Capacidades y Derechos Indigenas

    Estrategia de Inversion FIP (Forestaria Comunitaria Indigena)

    Estrategia de Inversion FIP (Forestaria Comunitaria Indigena)

    - AIDESEP

     

    Formato de Perfil de Proyecto para Forestaria Comunitaria Indigena

    Perfil de Proyecto para la Estrategia de Inversion FIP

    Perfil de Proyecto para la Estrategia de Inversion FIP

    - AIDESEP

     

    Saneamiento Territorial de los Pueblos Indígenas Amazónicos

    Apoyo de la Preparacion de la Estrategia Nacional de Inversion del Programa de Inversion Forestal (FIP)

    Apoyo de la Preparacion de la Estrategia Nacional de Inversion del Programa de Inversion Forestal (FIP)

    - AIDESEP

     

    Programa de Fortalecimiento de Capacidades y Derechos Indígena

    African Women's Rights to Forests

    African Women's Rights to Forests

    Gender in Forest management and Policy in Central and West Africa

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    These are four policy briefs in a suite of analyses undertaken by RRI’s Africa Program, focusing on gender equity and women’s rights in forest and land policy in Central and West Africa. The analyses focuses on four countries: Mali, Cameroon, Burkina Faso and Liberia. They summarize longer studies carried out by RRI Collaborators IUCN, Foundation for Community Initiatives and Cameroon Ecology.

    Les droits forestiers des femmes africaines

    Les droits forestiers des femmes africaines

    Les questions de genre dans la politique et la gestion forestières en Afrique Centrale et de l'Ouest

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    These are four policy briefs in a suite of analyses undertaken by RRI’s Africa Program, focusing on gender policy and women’s rights in forest and land policy in Central and West Africa. The analyses focuses on four countries: Mali, Cameroon, Burkina Faso and Liberia. They summarize longer studies carried out by RRI collaborators IUCN and Cameroon Ecology.

    Lay of the land

    Lay of the land

    Improving land governance to stop land grabs

    Isabel Crabtree-Condor, Leora Casey - ActionAid

     

    Large-scale land acquisitions by investors, which are often called ‘land grabs,' can deprive rural women and communities of their livelihoods and land, increasing their food insecurity. This report argues that the current rise in land grabbing needs to be urgently addressed, and focuses on the actions that developing countries can take to mitigate land grabs through strengthening national land governance so that it is transparent, is accountable and protects communities’ rights.

    Free, Prior and Informed Consent and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    Free, Prior and Informed Consent and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil

    A Guide for Companies

    - RSPO

     

    ‘Free, Prior and Informed Consent’ (FPIC) has emerged as a key principle in international law and jurisprudence related to Indigenous Peoples and has been widely accepted in private sector policies of ‘corporate social responsibility’. The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) has developed this guide for corporate investors worldwide.

    Global Witness 2011 Annual Transparency Report

    Global Witness 2011 Annual Transparency Report

    An Executive Summary

    - Global Witness

     

    This report assesses 20 indicators on key aspects of forest sector governance, using Global Witness' unique traffic lights system. It covers Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ecuador, Ghana, Guatemala, Liberia and Peru.

    Beragam Jalur Menuju Keadilan

    Beragam Jalur Menuju Keadilan

    Pluralisme hukum dan hak-hak masyarakat adat di Asia Tenggara

    Marcus Colchester, Sophie Chao - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    Diverse Paths to Justice: Legal pluralism and the rights of indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. (Bahasa Indonesia) Edited by Marcus Colchester and Sophie Chao, Forest Peoples Programme Forward by Myrna Safitri, Epistema Institute Contributors: Marcus Colchester, Ramy Bulan, Jennifer Corpuz, Amity Doolittle, Devasish Roy, Emil Ola Kleden, Prasert Trakansuphakon

    Designing Effective REDD+ Safeguard Information Systems

    Designing Effective REDD+ Safeguard Information Systems

    Building on existing systems and country experiences

    - ASB - Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins, International Institute for Sustainable Development

     

    A key determinant of REDD+ success will be the continued development and implementation of safeguards. REDD+ safeguards aim to ensure that REDD+ actions do not cause negative social or environmental impacts and cover a range of issues, including respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples and local communities, transparent national forest governance structures, effective participation of stakeholders, and the conservation of natural forests and biodiversity.

    Las Comunidades que Mueven al País

    Las Comunidades que Mueven al País

    El estado de las comunidades rurales en el Perú Informe 2012

    - Territorios Seguros para las Comunidades del Peru, Instituto del Bien Común

     

    Hablar de las comunidades rurales del Perú es referirse a sus pobladores originales, a más de 50 pueblos indígenas y originarios que han dado lugar a esa enorme riqueza y diversidad cultural que tanto nos llena de orgullo; es mencionar a aquella parte vital del país que contribuye al bienestar de todos los peruanos con la excelencia de sus productos.

    World Agroforestry Centre: Incentives for carbon sequestration and energy production in low productivity collective forests in Southwest China

    World Agroforestry Centre: Incentives for carbon sequestration and energy production in low productivity collective forests in Southwest China

    Fredrich Kahrl, Yufang Su, Timm Tennigkeit, Andreas Wilkes, Xu Jianchu, Mei Yan

     

    This paper develops three scenarios for the management of an existing, lowproductivity, collectiveforest plot in Southwest China: continuation of the status quo, transition to sustainable forest management (SFM), and conversion to a short rotation species for producing biomass for electricity generation. We examine how economic incentives vary across the three scenarios and how payments for CO2 sequestration and offsets affect incentives. We find that SFM is risky for forest managers and is highly sensitive to revenues from initial thinning; that carbon revenues can lower some of the risks and improve the economics of SFM; but that carbon revenues are effective in incentivizing management changes only if yield response to thinning is moderately high. Energyproduction from stem wood is too low value to compete with timber, even with revenues from CO2 offsets. However, conversion of existing forests into short rotation species for timber rather than energy is more profitable than any scenario considered here, highlighting the need for regulatory innovations to balance incentives for timber production with conservation goals. The results underscore the importance of improved public sector regulatory, planning, extension, and analysis capacity, as an enabling force for effective climate policies in China’s forestry sector.

    World Agroforestry Centre: Reducing Emissions from All Land Uses (REALU) - Vietnam: Will current forest land tenure impede REDD+ efforts in Vietnam? (in Vietnam language)

    World Agroforestry Centre: Reducing Emissions from All Land Uses (REALU) - Vietnam: Will current forest land tenure impede REDD+ efforts in Vietnam? (in Vietnam language)

    Do Trong Hoan, Delia Catacutan, Vu Thi Hien, Lai Tung Quan

     

    Most REDD+ initiatives such as UN-REDD and the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) identify tenure reform as an important aspect of REDD+ readiness. In Vietnam, different forest land and forest tenure exist but are plagued with issues, which challenged many forest conservation projects. So, will this impede REDD+ efforts? Tenure also became important to Payments for Forest Environmental Services (PFES), as payments could only be transferred to official ‘forest land tenants’, undermining many non-tenured forest protectors from accessing benefits. Two critical questions: Should tenure be first addressed for REDD+ to be functional? Or can it be a means for improving current tenure arrangements?

    World Agroforestry Centre: Participatory agroforestry development for restoring degraded sloping land in DPR Korea

    World Agroforestry Centre: Participatory agroforestry development for restoring degraded sloping land in DPR Korea

    Xu Jianchu, Meine van Noordwijk, Jun He, Kwang-Ju Kim, Kon-Gyu Pak, Un-Hui Kye, Jong-Sik Kim, Kwon-Mu Kim, Yong-Nam Sim

     

    Participatory approaches in agroforestry combine land, labor, and knowledge, by blending local experience with external expert support for sloping land restoration. We describe and analyze over a decade of bottom-up agroforestry development processes that today are influencing national policies. In the 1990s, after economic upheaval following the collapse of trade with the USSR (Soviet Union) rapid conversion of sloping lands to agriculture, in association with heavy rainfall events, caused widespread erosion and landslides. In response, pilot scale ‘user groups’ obtained rights-to-use, rights-to-harvest and rights-to-plan or access to sloping lands for tree products and food. All three rights were novel in the DPR Korea and jointly contributed to success, together with active research support. Innovations in double-cropping annual food crops together with non-competitive contour strips of valuable fruits (aronia berry: Aronia melanocarpa) and/or high-value timber (larch:Larix leptolepis) emerged as preferred local agroforestry systems. Broad support for agroforestry practices has now emerged within the Ministry of Land and Environmental Protection as well as a number of universities and research centres. Further development will require increased engagement with agricultural and horticultural agencies, while the social dimensions of participatory agroforestry continue to provide rich learning.

    Forest Peoples Programme: Numbers Across the World

    Forest Peoples Programme: Numbers Across the World

    Sophie Chao - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    By providing estimated figures for indigenous and forest peoples’ populations in countries and regions across the globe, this report seeks to raise awareness of the existence of peoples who primarily depend on forests for their livelihoods, and to enhance their visibility as key actors and rights-holders in the management and use of forests and forest resources. These figures may serve as a useful reference in advocacy for the recognition of forest peoples’ legal and human rights.

    Sustainable Community Forest Management:

    Sustainable Community Forest Management:

    A Practical Guide to FSC Group Certification for Smallholder Agroforests

    - TFT

     

    TFT’s new guide to working with smallholder agroforest managers is aimed at empowering communities to successfully launch sustainable forest businesses.

    Land Rights in Gabon, Facing Up to the Past - and Present

    Land Rights in Gabon, Facing Up to the Past - and Present

    Liz Alden Wily - FERN

     

    This report by land tenure specialist Liz Alden Wily documents the tenure situation in Gabon to inform, among others, ongoing discussions concerning FLEGT and REDD in the country.

    The Complete Handbook on Pitsawing in Liberia

    The Complete Handbook on Pitsawing in Liberia

    - Association of Environmental Lawyers of Liberia (Green Advocates), Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This Handbook is not intended to proliferate the number of pitsawyers but to contribute to responsible pitsawing that respects established regulations in the forestry sector as well as to ensure personal security of all pitsawyers and users of chainsaw anywhere.

    Breakthrough Journal: Conservation in the Anthropocene

    Breakthrough Journal: Conservation in the Anthropocene

    Michelle Marvier, Peter Kareiva, and Robert Lalasz - Breakthrough Journal

     

    Ironically, conservation is losing the war to protect nature despite winning one of its hardest fought battles -- the fight to create parks, game preserves, and wilderness areas. Even as we are losing species and wild places at an accelerating rate, the worldwide number of protected areas has risen dramatically.

    Positive Investment Alternatives to Large Scale Land Acquisitions or Leases

    Positive Investment Alternatives to Large Scale Land Acquisitions or Leases

    Sylvia Kay

     

    The aim of the paper is to open up this small box of what investment in agriculture entails. Once investment is defined as activities which build up all forms of capital, including natural, social, human, physical and financial, it becomes clear that large-scale land acquisitions or leases which only contribute financial capital and degrade other forms of capital have hijacked the concept of investment.

    Supporting small forest enterprises: A facilitator's toolkit

    Supporting small forest enterprises: A facilitator's toolkit

    Pocket guidance not rocket science!

    - IIED

     

    The goal of this toolkit is to help supporters of small and medium forest enterprises (SMFEs) work more effectively. We have written this toolkit for ‘facilitators’, for example donors at the international level and, most importantly, government extension services and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) at the national level. We have not written this toolkit for enterprises – although they may find some of the materials in component three useful.

    Appuyer les petites entreprises forestieres: Boite a outils du facilitateur

    Appuyer les petites entreprises forestieres: Boite a outils du facilitateur

    Conseils en kit, c'est dans la poche!

    - IIED

     

    Le but de cette boîte à outils est d’aider les entités apportant leur soutien aux petites et moyennes entreprises forestières (PMEF) à travailler de façon plus efficace. Cette boîte à outils a été rédigée à l’intention des « facilitateurs », par exemple les bailleurs de fonds au niveau international et, surtout, les services publics de vulgarisation et les organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) au niveau national. Elle ne s’adresse pas aux entreprises, même si celles-ci pourront sans doute trouver des informations utiles dans le troisième volet.

    Big ideas in development: Investing in locally controlled forestry

    Big ideas in development: Investing in locally controlled forestry

    Natural protection for people and planet

    - IIED

     

    In this booklet we examine the thinking behind investing in locally controlled forestry. We explore how forests are valued by local people; show why forests thrive under local control; and consider how policymakers, banks and businesses can invest in the idea.

    FLEGT, VPA, EUTR and their possible impact on the Bolivian timber sector

    FLEGT, VPA, EUTR and their possible impact on the Bolivian timber sector

    Final Report

    Christopher Carden, Robbert Wijers, Paul Zambon

     

    The reason behind the development of this study was the fear that from the introduction of the EUTR in March 2013 there would be no possibility of continuing exporting Bolivian timber (products) to the EU market, without there being a signed Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA). Therefore the objective of the study was to inventory the actual situation in Bolivia and develop a kind of action plan that would enable the achievement of a functional VPA within a year. S-FOR-S formed a team of consultants to implement a desk study (internet, document review) and a field mission (discussions, interviews, observations).

    Acuerdo sobre Territorio, Bosques y  Redd+ Indígena en Región Loreto

    Acuerdo sobre Territorio, Bosques y Redd+ Indígena en Región Loreto

    AIDESEP - AIDESEP

     

    Los Pueblos Achuar, Awajun, Bora, Jebero, Kandoshi, kukama Kukamiria, Shapra, Shuar (Wampis), Shawi, Siwilo, Matsés, Witoto, Quechua, Yagua, de la Región Loreto , reunidos durante el Taller “Territorios, Bosques, Clima y Redd+ Indígena en Loreto”, en la Comunidad Educativa de Zungarococha (del FORMABIAP) del 15 al 17 de abril del 2012; luego de analizar las informaciones brindadas sobre los temas señalados, por diversas instituciones (AIDESEP, DAR, IBC, GOREL, SPDA, CEDIA, IIAP, NCI y otros) ; así como luego de discutir en grupos de trabajo, hemos llegado a los siguientes acuerdos, los cuales comunicamos a nuestras comunidades, así como a las autoridades de nuestra región, del país e instituciones vinculadas a Territorios, Bosques, Clima y Redd+ en el mundo (BM, BID, FIP, OIT, ONUREDD+ entre otros)

    The Challenges of Securing Women’s Tenure and Leadership for Forest Management

    The Challenges of Securing Women’s Tenure and Leadership for Forest Management

    The Asian Experience

    Marlène Buchy, Kalpana Giri, Joan Jamisolamin, Mia Siscawati, Avi Mahaningtyas, Jeannette Gurung, Abidah Billah Setyowati, Xiaobei Wang, Naomi Basik, Apsara Chapagain , Cécile Ndjebet

     

    New research released by the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) at the International Workshop on Gender and Forest Tenure in Asia and Collective Forest Tenure Reform in China shows that despite more understanding, more resources, and policy recommendations, women continue to be largely marginalized and ignored or exploited in community based resource management processes throughout Asia. This research provides the most comprehensive continent wide analysis on the status of forest tenure rights and gender rights.

     

    Associated Documents

    Gender in Forest Tenure Gender in Forest Tenure
    Prerequisite for Sustainable Forest Management in Nepal- Brief 1 of 4
    Kalpana Giri
    Gender Justice Gender Justice
    Forest Tenure and Forest Governance in Indonesia - Brief 3 of 4
    Mia Siscawati, Avi Mahaningtyas
    Re-envisioning REDD+ Re-envisioning REDD+
    Gender, Forest Governance and REDD+ in Asia - Brief 4 of 4
    Jeannette Gurung, Abidah Billah Setyowati
    Spotlight on Gender: Ensuring Poor Rural Women Benefit from Forestland Reform in China Spotlight on Gender: Ensuring Poor Rural Women Benefit from Forestland Reform in China
    Summary of Field Research and Policy Recommendations
    Xiaobei Wang - Landesa-RDI
    Re-Framing REDD+

    Re-Framing REDD+

    Unlocking the potential of jurisdictional REDD+ as a policy framework for low-emission rural development: research results and recommendations for governments

    Dan Nepstad - IPAM

     

    Report from the Amazon Environmental Research Institute over REDD+ policies featuring research results and recommendations.

    The Norwegian Embassy supports New Suite of Research Reports on Critical Role of Women in Asia’s Forests

    The Norwegian Embassy supports New Suite of Research Reports on Critical Role of Women in Asia’s Forests

    The Norwegian Embassy supports New Suite of Research Reports on Critical Role of Women in Asia’s Forests - Royal Norwegian Embassy

     

    The suite of analyses called Securing Women’s Tenure and Leadership for Forest Management: A Summary of the Asian Experience was released in Beijing 21 July at the International Workshop on Gender and Forest Tenure in Asia and Collective Forest Tenure Reform in China.

    Emerging trends in land-use conflicts in Cameroon

    Emerging trends in land-use conflicts in Cameroon

    Overlapping natural resource permits threaten protected areas and foreign direct investment

    Brendan Schwartz, David Hoyle, Samuel Nguiffo - RELUFA, WWF Cameroon, CED Cameroun

     

    An ad hoc working paper prepared by RELUFA, WWF Cameroon, and CED Cameroun.

     

    Associated Documents

    Tendances émergentes dans les conflits liés à l’utilisation des terres au Cameroun Tendances émergentes dans les conflits liés à l’utilisation des terres au Cameroun
    Chevauchements des permis des ressources naturelles et menaces sur les aires protégées et les investissements directs étrangers
    Brendan Schwartz, David Hoyle, Samuel Nguiffo - RELUFA, WWF Cameroon, CED Cameroun
    Rights-based rainforest protection

    Rights-based rainforest protection

    Why securing the rights of forest peoples is the right way to save the forest

    - Regnskogfondet: Rainforest Foundation of Norway

     

    In this report, Rainforest Foundation Norway shows how a rights-based approach is both the most effective way to protect the rainforest, as well as the best way to avoid that forest protection leads to human rights violations.

    Territorialidad y Gobernanza

    Territorialidad y Gobernanza

    Tejiendo Retos en los Territorios Indígenas de la RAAN, Nicaragua

    Anne M. Larson, Fernanda Soto - CIFOR

     

    El presente libro cuenta con dos partes. La primera parte consiste en la síntesis y comparación de los tres estudios de caso elaborados por las tres organizaciones participantes en la investigación. En ésta los autores presentan cuáles son los principales retos y fortalezas en común que los procesos de titulación han generado para los tres territorios. De igual forma se exploran las particularidades que presenta cada territorio y que demandan especial atención para comprender las implicaciones del proceso de conformación territorial para las realidades comunitarias. La segunda parte comprende cada uno de los estudios de caso, iniciando por el Territorio Mayangna Sauni Arungka-Matungbak, estudiado por el Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo, Nitlapan. Seguidamente se presenta el territorio Tasba Pri, estudiado por el Centro para la Autonomía y Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas (CADPI). Finalmente, se presenta el territorio Tawira, cuyo proceso de conformación territorial fue realizado por el Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible (IREMADES).

    Analysing REDD+

    Analysing REDD+

    Challenges and Choices

    Arild Angelsen, Maria Brockhaus, William D. Sunderlin, Louis V. Verchot

     

    The bookprovides an analysis of actual REDD+ design and early implementation, based on a large research project – the Global Comparative Study on REDD+ (GCS), undertaken by CIFOR and partners. It takes stock of national, subnational and local REDD+ experiences, and identifies the political and practical challenges to designing and implementing effective, efficient and equitable REDD+ policies and projects.

    Rio+20 International Conference of Indigenous Peoples on Self-Determination and Sustainable Development Final Political Declaration

    Rio+20 International Conference of Indigenous Peoples on Self-Determination and Sustainable Development Final Political Declaration

    Rio+20 International Conference of Indigenous Peoples on Self-­‐Determination and Sustainable Development

     

    Indigenous Peoples from all regions of the world met at the “Indigenous Peoples International Conference on Sustainable Development and Self Determination,” from June 17th – 19th 2012 at the Museu da República in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Rio+20 Outcome of the Conference: The Future We Want

    Rio+20 Outcome of the Conference: The Future We Want

    Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development - United Nations

     

    Heads of State and Government and high-level representatives met in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 2012 to renew their commitment to sustainable development.

    ForestAction Nepal, 2011 Annual Report

    ForestAction Nepal, 2011 Annual Report

    - Forest Action Nepal

     

    This is the 2011 annual report for ForestAction Nepal, which highlights the organization's 2011 activities and achievements.

    Forest Peoples: Numbers Across the World

    Forest Peoples: Numbers Across the World

    Sophie Chao - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    By providing estimated figures for indigenous and forest peoples’ populations in countries and regions across the globe, this new Forest Peoples Programme report seeks to raise awareness of the existence of peoples who primarily depend on forests for their livelihoods, and to enhance their visibility as key actors and rights-holders in the management and use of forests and forest resources. These figures may serve as a useful reference in advocacy for the recognition of forest peoples’ legal and human rights.

    Red MOCAF: Fortalecen derechos de ejidos y comunidades forestales reformas legales aprobadas por las Cámaras de Senadores y Diputados

    Red MOCAF: Fortalecen derechos de ejidos y comunidades forestales reformas legales aprobadas por las Cámaras de Senadores y Diputados

    - Red MOCAF

     

    El pasado 24 de abril del año en curso el Senado de la República aprobó varias reformas legales que fortalecen el derecho de Ejidos, Comunidades Indígenas y Pequeños Propietarios sobre la propiedad del llamado Carbono Forestal

    Cámara de Senadores Mexicanos: Dictamen de las comisiones unidas de medio ambiente, recursos naturales, y pesca

    Cámara de Senadores Mexicanos: Dictamen de las comisiones unidas de medio ambiente, recursos naturales, y pesca

    - Cámara de Senadores Mexicanos

     

    Dictamen de las comisiones unidas de medio ambiente, recursos naturales, y pesca; y de estudios legislativos, primera; minuta con proyecto de decreto que reforma y adiciona diversas dispocisiones de las leyes generales del equilibrio ecologico y la proteccion al ambiente, y de desarollo forestal sustentable.

    What Rights?

    What Rights?

    A Comparative Analysis of Developing Countries’ National Legislation on Community and Indigenous Peoples’ Forest Tenure Rights

    RRI

     

    This report presents a legal analysis of the national legislation that relates to Indigenous Peoples' and communities' forest tenure rights at a global scale by assessing whether the legal systems of 27 of the most forested developing countries of the world recognize the rights of Indigenous Peoples and communities to access, withdraw, manage, exclude and alienate to forest resources and land. The countries included in this study are home to 2.2 billion rural people and include approximately 75% of the forests in the developing world.

     

    Associated Documents

    ¿Cuáles Derechos? ¿Cuáles Derechos?
    Un análisis comparativo de la legislación nacional de los países en vías de desarrollo relacionada a los derechos de tenencia de los bosques de los Pueblos Indígenas y de las comunidades locales
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Quels droits de tenure forestière pour les communautés locales et les populations autochtones? Quels droits de tenure forestière pour les communautés locales et les populations autochtones?
    Analyse comparative des législations nationales dans plusieurs pays en voie de développement
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Respecting Rights, Delivering Development

    Respecting Rights, Delivering Development

    Forest Tenure Reform since Rio 1992

    Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    Over the twenty years since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro set sustainable development as a key global objective, Indigenous Peoples and local community management of forests has proven to be one major area of progress among the many unmet goals and aspirations. This report takes stock of that progress and presents new finding as well as examples from China, Brazil, India, Nepal, Cameroon and Mexico. The amount of forest recognized as owned or controlled by Indigenous Peoples and forest communities has increased from 10 to 15% globally and from 21 to 31% of developing country forests. The amount of legislation recognizing or strengthening local peoples’ forest and land rights have also increased dramatically - with over 50 new laws since 1992 recognizing tenure rights of forest communities and Indigenous Peoples. And a new slate of rigorous research makes clear that the recognition of rights results in strong, positive impacts in social, economic and environmental terms – delivering on the global goals of sustainable development. Where Indigenous Peoples’ and local community rights are recognized territories and community-managed forests have outperformed public protected areas in preventing deforestation and ensuring conservation. They have also proven more effective than state controlled forests in sequestering carbon and increasing household incomes. And clear property rights for local people have played a central role in enabling countries to achieve national-level forest restoration. The recognition of rights has also clearly played a key role in saving and strengthening many Indigenous Peoples and forest communities – helping prevent the further loss of the unique human and cultural expressions that is not only worthy of celebration on their own, but central to achieving any definition of development.

     

    Associated Documents

    Les droits de tenure au service du développement Les droits de tenure au service du développement
    Quel bilan depuis les engagements pris pendant le Sommet de Rio de 1992
    - L’Initiative des Droits et Ressources
    Respeitar Direitos, Concretizar Desenvolvimento Respeitar Direitos, Concretizar Desenvolvimento
    Reformas da posse florestal desde a Rio 1992
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Respetando Los Derechos, Proporcionando Desarrollo Respetando Los Derechos, Proporcionando Desarrollo
    Reformas en la tenencia forestal a partir de Río 1992
    - La Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos (RRI)
    RESULTADOS Y PRINCIPALES CONCLUSIONES DEL FORO VIRTUAL GOBERNANZA EN TERRITORIOS INDÍGENAS Y ÁREAS PROTEGIDAS TRASLAPADAS O SOLAPADAS

    RESULTADOS Y PRINCIPALES CONCLUSIONES DEL FORO VIRTUAL GOBERNANZA EN TERRITORIOS INDÍGENAS Y ÁREAS PROTEGIDAS TRASLAPADAS O SOLAPADAS

    - ILSA

     

    En diversos países de América Latina las áreas demarcadas como territorios de pueblos indígenas a menudo se solapan o traslapan con áreas de los sistemas nacionales de áreas naturales protegidas. Los pueblos indígenas y sus organizaciones representativas, al parecer, no han tenido ninguna participación en la definición de éstas áreas y se han visto seriamente afectados en sus intereses territoriales y en el acceso a los recursos existentes en sus propios territorios.

    GOBERNANZA EN TERRITORIOS INDÍGENAS Y ÁREAS PROTEGIDAS TRASLAPADAS O SOLAPADAS

    GOBERNANZA EN TERRITORIOS INDÍGENAS Y ÁREAS PROTEGIDAS TRASLAPADAS O SOLAPADAS

    Diego F. Henao A. - ILSA

     

    En diversos países de América Latina las áreas demarcadas como territorios de pueblos indígenas a menudo son traslapadas con áreas de los sistemas nacionales de áreas naturales protegidas. Los pueblos indígenas y sus organizaciones representativas, al parecer, no han tenido una participación efectiva en la definición de éstas áreas y se han visto seriamente afectados en sus derechos e intereses territoriales, y en el acceso a los recursos existentes en sus propios territorios.

     

    Associated Documents

    SISTEMATIZACIÓN DE UNA EXPERIENCIA DE GOBERNANZA DE TERRITORIO INDÍGENA SOBREPUESTO CON UN ÁREA PROTEGIDA SISTEMATIZACIÓN DE UNA EXPERIENCIA DE GOBERNANZA DE TERRITORIO INDÍGENA SOBREPUESTO CON UN ÁREA PROTEGIDA
    LA RESERVA DE LA BIOSFERA Y TIERRA COMUNITARIA DE ORIGEN PILÓN LAJAS - BOLIVIA
    Jorge Mariaca, Luis Arteaga, Oscar Loayza - ILSA
    The global land rush

    The global land rush

    what the evidence reveals about scale and geography

    Lorenzo Cotula , Emily Polack - IIED

     

    In developing countries, millions of people depend on land for their food and livelihoods. But a global ‘land rush’ — moves to acquire large tracts of land across the world — is increasing competition for this vital resource. A growing body of evidence points to the scale, geography, players and key characteristics of the phenomenon. Some of this is based on media reports and some on country level inventories. Much of the data cannot be compared due to variations in methodology, timescale and the differing criteria for what makes a land deal. Further improving data and analysis is critical. But while exact numbers will keep changing, all evidence indicates that land acquisitions are happening quickly and on a large scale. So we urgently need to get on with developing appropriate responses.

    Transnational Land Deals for Agriculture in the Global South

    Transnational Land Deals for Agriculture in the Global South

    Analytical Report based on the Land Matrix Database

    Anseeuw, W., Boche, M., Breu, T., Giger, M., Lay, J., Messerli, P., Nolte, K. - International Land Coalition

     

    A new report and website provide important insight into the complex, global phenomenon of large-scale acquisition of land. They confirm this is a lasting trend and not a mere “bubble”. While the rush for land may have peaked in 2009, it continues at a steady pace.

    RRI Framework Agreement for 2013-2017

    RRI Framework Agreement for 2013-2017

    Accelerating Reforms in Forest Rights, Governance, and Markets to Meet Global Challenges to Reduce Poverty, Conflict and Climate Change

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This is RRI's proposed and agreed-upon action framework for 2013-2017.

     

    Associated Documents

    USAID Policy: Gender Equality and Female Empowerment

    USAID Policy: Gender Equality and Female Empowerment

    - USAID

     

    An updated Agency policy on gender equality and female empowerment is needed to reflect fundamental changes in the world and the evidence that has accumulated since the 1982 Policy Paper on Women in Development was issued. This new policy on Gender Equality and Female Empowerment builds on the Agency’s progress to date.

    Opening Pandora's Box

    Opening Pandora's Box

    The New Wave of Land Grabbing by the Extractive Industries and the Devastating Impact on Earth

    Philippe Sibaud - The Gaia Foundation

     

    MINING, OIL and GAS: the impact of these extractive industries has always raised serious social and environmental concerns. However, this report signals a wake-up call to the fact that, today, the scale, expansion and acceleration of these industries are far greater than most of us realise. We are no longer talking about isolated pockets of destruction and pollution. Nowadays, chances are that, no matter where you live on Earth, land acquisitions for mining, oil and gas might soon be at your door. This trend is now a major driver of land grabbing globally, and poses a significant threat to the world’s indigenous communities, farmers and local food production systems, as well as to precious water, forests, biodiversity, critical ecosystems and climate change.

    The Land Security Agenda

    The Land Security Agenda

    How investor risks in farmland create opportunities for sustainability

    - Earth Security Initiative

     

    This report by the Earth Security Initiative seeks to reframe the debate of ‘land-grabs’ in terms of solutions. It builds an argument for taking decisive action on ecological and human rights from a perspective of risk management, based on the prediction that resource pressures will continue to intensify globally. The solutions proposed seek to incentivize investors and political leaders to encourage investments that create long-term value, and deter those that deplete a country’s human and ecological capital. This report focuses on sub-Saharan Africa where this process is critical given the governance challenges, the lower levels of land tenure by communities, and the fragility of human security.

    ForestAction Quarterly Update - March 2012

    ForestAction Quarterly Update - March 2012

    - ForestAction Nepal

     

    Quarterly updates from RRI Collaborator ForestAction Nepal

    Beauty and the Beast

    Beauty and the Beast

    Norway's investments in rainforest protection and rainforest destruction

    - Rainforest Foundation Norway and Friends of the Earth Norway

     

    While the Norwegian government has been widely commended for its efforts to protect the world’s rainforests through REDD++, the report discloses lesser known facts about the same government's massive investments in industries that drive forest destruction in developing countries.

    Accelerating Reforms in Forest Rights, Governance and Markets

    Accelerating Reforms in Forest Rights, Governance and Markets

    5 Years of the Rights and Resources Initiative

    RRI

     

    This report expands on 5 years of impact by the Rights and Resources Initiative. The impact of RRI’s 14 Partners and 120 plus Collaborators is strong and extensive. The collective RRI ‘fingerprint’ can be seen in major tenure reforms in China and Brazil, stronger tenure advocacy in Nepal and Central America, greater global awareness of tenure in global REDD negotiations, enhancing corporate responsibility standards and policy, growing reform movements, and supporting women’s natural resource rights mobilization in Central and West Africa to name a few.

    Turning Point

    Turning Point

    What future for forest peoples and resources in the emerging world order?

    - RRG

     

    This report takes stock of the current status of forest rights and tenure globally, assesses the key issues and events of 2011 that shape possibilities to improve local rights and livelihoods, and identifies key questions and challenges that the world will face in 2012 and beyond.

     

    Associated Documents

    Titik Balik Titik Balik
    Bagaimana masa depan masyarakat dan sumberdaya hutan dalam tatanan dunia yang sedang tumbuh?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Rights to Resources in Crisis

    Rights to Resources in Crisis

    Reviewing the Fate of Customary Tenure in Africa

    Liz Alden Wily

     

    This five brief series, written by panelist Liz Alden Wily, analyzes the roots of African land tenure systems, recent policy trends and puts the phenomenon of large scale land acquisitions in rich historical context.

    Les Droits aux Ressources en Crise

    Les Droits aux Ressources en Crise

    État des Lieux de la Tenure Coutumière en Afrique

    Liz Alden Wily

     

    L’objectif de cette série de cinq essais est d’informer et d’aider à structurer le plaidoyer et les actions contestant la faiblesse juridique des droits fonciers coutumiers dans de nombreux pays africains.

    The Challenges of Growing with Complexity

    The Challenges of Growing with Complexity

    Mid-Term Evaluation of the Rights and Resources Initiative

    The Mountain Institute

     

    The Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI)1 was established in 2005 as a coalition of organizational partners to promote local people‟s rights over forest resources and reduce poverty. It has been led by an active secretariat, established as the Rights and Resources Group (RRG), and guided by a prominent Board that included Partner and independent members. In January 2008, a Framework Proposal developed in coordination with partners and donors was adopted to provide strategic direction and enable common funding and reporting for a five-year period through 2012. A pool of European Bilateral donors and US Foundations has generously funded this proposal with approximately $27 million of committed funds to date.2 This mid-term evaluation (MTE) is mandated by the RRI Framework agreement. The research has been carried out over the period of March to July, 2011, by an independent international team of The Mountain Institute (TMI) recruited through a competitive process.3 The results of the MTE are based on over 110 interviews, email responses and questionnaires. The team conducted face to face interviews in Nepal, China, Thailand, UK, Norway, Cameroon, Mali, Bolivia, Peru and Washington, DC.

    Bundles of Energy: The case for renewable biomass energy

    Bundles of Energy: The case for renewable biomass energy

    Duncan Macqueen, Sibel Korhaliller - International Institute for Environment and Development (iied)

     

    Taking biomass energy seriously makes increasing sense. Biomass energy currently makes up 77 per cent of the world primary renewable energy mix – or 10 per cent of the world primary energy mix. The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that biomass will become increasingly important as a source of energy, rising to 30 per cent of the world primary energy mix by 2050. Since non-OECD countries are disproportionately (26 per cent) dependent on biomass energy, by acting now to legalise and make existing biomass energy value chains sustainable, such countries could create a platform for more advanced biomass energy options in the future such as electricity generation or the production of second generation biofuels.

    Peru: Estudios de caso sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas

    Peru: Estudios de caso sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas

    Borrador Final

    Irene Ramos Urrutia - Derecho, Ambiente, y Recursos Naturales (DAR)

     

    Parte de cuatro estudios de caso (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Perú) sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas en relación con las política(s) pública(s) y las estrategias empresariales; y cuáles son los impactos en las relaciones sociales, las formas de propiedad y el aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales.

    Brasil: Estudios de caso sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas

    Brasil: Estudios de caso sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas

    Apontamentos sobre os impactos socioambientais e econômicos da soja nas comunidades do Parque Indígena do Xingu e da Terra Indígena Paresi

    Marcel Gomes, Verena Glass, Antonio Biondi - Repórter Brasil

     

    Parte de cuatro estudios de caso (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Perú) sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas en relación con las política(s) pública(s) y las estrategias empresariales; y cuáles son los impactos en las relaciones sociales, las formas de propiedad y el aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales. Estos estudios de caso se realizaron en 2011 como parte del plan de trabajo regional de RRI en América Latina. El proyecto fue liderado por CEDLA, en colaboración con ILSA (Colombia), DAR (Perú), y RepórterBrasil (Brasil).

    Colombia: Estudios de caso sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas

    Colombia: Estudios de caso sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas

    GRANDES INVERSIONES EN TERRITORIOS INDIGENAS Colombia: dos casos de estudio

    Margarita Flórez A. , Héctor-León Moncayo S. - Instituto Latinoamericano para una Sociedad y un Derecho alternativos, ILSA

     

    Parte de cuatro estudios de caso (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Perú) sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas en relación con las política(s) pública(s) y las estrategias empresariales; y cuáles son los impactos en las relaciones sociales, las formas de propiedad y el aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales. Estos estudios de caso se realizaron en 2011 como parte del plan de trabajo regional de RRI en América Latina. El proyecto fue liderado por CEDLA, en colaboración con ILSA (Colombia), DAR (Perú), y RepórterBrasil (Brasil).

    Bolivia: Estudios de caso sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas

    Bolivia: Estudios de caso sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas

    Casos Territorios Guarayos y Multiétnico II

    - CEDLA

     

    Estos estudios de caso se realizaron en 2011 como parte del plan de trabajo regional de RRI en América Latina. El proyecto fue liderado por CEDLA, en colaboración con ILSA (Colombia), DAR (Perú), y RepórterBrasil (Brasil). Parte de cuatro estudios de caso (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Perú) sobre inversiones en tierras y territorios indígenas en relación con las política(s) pública(s) y las estrategias empresariales; y cuáles son los impactos en las relaciones sociales, las formas de propiedad y el aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales.

    Rights and Resources Initiative 2011 Independent Monitor's Report

    Rights and Resources Initiative 2011 Independent Monitor's Report

    Kevin Murray - Kevin Murray Strategic Consulting

     

    During 2011, the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) supported its fourth Independent Monitoring (IM) exercise. Given that the organization had just completed a Mid-Term Review, the IM exercise was less ambitious than in previous years. It focused on validating RRG’s reported progress toward realizing the Initiative’s Strategic Outcomes, and it also reviewed RRI’s implementation of its internal monitoring and evaluation system.

    Forest Tenure in Asia: Status and Trends

    Forest Tenure in Asia: Status and Trends

    Ganga Ram Dahal, Julian Atkinson, James Bampton - RECOFTC

     

    While Asia’s rapid growth has lifted millions out of poverty, persistent pockets still remain in areas beyond the embrace of development. Some 450 million people in Asia-Pacific live in and around forests, depending on them for subsistence, shelter and a way of life, which has been indigenous to their societies for generations. However, their status remains largely unacknowledged as governments retain administrative control over two-thirds of forestland in Asia. This publication by Ganga Ram Dahal, Julian Atkinson, and James Bampton finds that lack of political will and a strong preference for the expansion of industrial concessions (both for logging natural forests and agro-industrial plantations) and protected areas are limiting the scope of forest tenure reform in some countries, emphasizing that tenure security is a strong incentive that motivates the protection or destruction of forests.

    Brésil: Encourager un Cadre de Politique Forestière Progressiste

    Brésil: Encourager un Cadre de Politique Forestière Progressiste

    RRI

     

    L’Initiative des Droits et Ressources a influencé des changements de politiques et appuie des programmes de réforme de la tenure au Brésil qui affectent plus d’un million de brésiliens et 200 millions d’hectares de forêts.

    La RSE Ne Suffit Pas: Le Rapport “signal d’alarme” de RRI au Géant Mondial du Papier Protège les Droits Locaux dans la Région d’Hepu, en Chine

    La RSE Ne Suffit Pas: Le Rapport “signal d’alarme” de RRI au Géant Mondial du Papier Protège les Droits Locaux dans la Région d’Hepu, en Chine

    RRI

     

    Des recherches ciblées et influentes menées par l’Initiative des Droits et Ressources (RRI en anglais) ont contesté et finalement transformé les pratiques malhonnêtes d’une des plus grandes entreprises de papier au monde. L’étude, qui a été très diffusée, souligne le risque accru d’abus que font peser l’augmentation de la demande de terres et de ressources forestières, ainsi que les nouveaux financements disponibles dans le cadre des accords internationaux sur les changements climatiques, sur les droits fonciers à l’échelle mondiale.

    Herakles' 13th Labour

    Herakles' 13th Labour

    A Study of SGSOC's Land Concession in South-West Comeroon

    Samuel Nguiffo, Brendan Schwartz - Centre for Environment and Development (CED)

     

    Using a particular case study, this report attempts to illustrate the problems communities, environment, and the entire country are exposed to when large agro-industrial plantations are developed. The issues explained here within appear in all large-scale and long-term land concessions in Cameroon with only minor variations. Additionally, the principal agro-industrial plantations in Cameroon that are already in their production phase all experienced a series of unrelated and dramatic labor protests at the end of 2011 and 2012.

    Brasil: Estimulando un Marco Progresivo de Política Forestal Por

    Brasil: Estimulando un Marco Progresivo de Política Forestal Por

    RRI

     

    La Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos ha influenciado cambios de política y ha apoyado programas de reforma de tenencia en Brasil que afectan a más de un millón de brasileños y a 200 millones de hectáreas de bosque.

    La Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos y la Reforma de Tenencia Forestal en la China

    La Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos y la Reforma de Tenencia Forestal en la China

    RRI

     

    La Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos (RRI) ha sido un actor importante que ha influenciado los cambios en la tenencia de tierras forestales de la China, una de las más importantes reformas forestales de la historia.

    La Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos: apoyo a la foresta comunitaria a través de la OIMT

    La Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos: apoyo a la foresta comunitaria a través de la OIMT

    RRI

     

    A través de sus investigaciones y apoyo durante los últimos cinco años, la Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos ha influenciado las políticas de la Organización Internacional de las Maderas Tropicales, un grupo internacional que promueve la conservación, manejo sostenible y comercio de los recursos de los bosques tropicales alrededor del mundo.

    La RSC no es suficiente: El llamado de atención del reporte de RRI a un gigante global del papel protege los derechos locales en el condado de Hepu, China

    La RSC no es suficiente: El llamado de atención del reporte de RRI a un gigante global del papel protege los derechos locales en el condado de Hepu, China

    RRI

     

    Investigaciones precisas e influyentes realizadas por la Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos (RRI) retaron y, a la larga, alteraron las practicas anti-éticas de una de las más grandes compañías productoras de papel del mundo. El estudio, bien divulgado, resalta el creciente riesgo de abusos a los derechos de la tierra globalmente, incitados por la creciente demanda de tierras y recursos forestales, y complicado al hacerse disponible nuevos fondos de financiamiento disponible gracias a los acuerdos internacionales sobre cambio climático.

    2011: Exploring the Roles of Participatory Mapping

    2011: Exploring the Roles of Participatory Mapping

    Climate Change, Forest Reform, and Resource Rights

    Heather Teague - University of Texas at Austin

     

    Participatory mapping has been used since the 1990s to demonstrate Latin American indigenous communities‟ relationships to and use of lands, and in some cases, to demarcate and fight for legal title to communal territories The literature review is presented in three sections. Each section includes references to key texts; a complete list of references is included in the Citations section. I. Indigenous peoples‟ rights to land and resources. II. Global climate change and its relevance for indigenous peoples‟ rights to land and resources. III. Participatory mapping and its relevance for indigenous peoples‟ rights to land and resources.

    2011 - Cartografías sociales: acercamientos emergentes y nuevos horizontes

    2011 - Cartografías sociales: acercamientos emergentes y nuevos horizontes

    Henri Acselrad

     

    1. La espacialidad del capitalismo y de los Estados modernos 2. La redefinición de los procesos de territorialización 3. La redefinición de los instrumentos de representación estatal del espacio “del desarrollo” 4. Nuevos mapeos y políticas cartográficas

    2011- Mapeo Participativo: Estado del Arte

    2011- Mapeo Participativo: Estado del Arte

    Nota Conceptual

    Joe Bryan

     

    Este trabajo revisa los enfoques prevalentes en mapeo participativo con el objetivo de asociar las aproximaciones metodológicas con determinados resultados políticos, sean éstos intencionados o no. A través de una evaluación de las fortalezas y debilidades de varios enfoques en mapeo, este documento considera la importancia del mapeo como una táctica para el avance en el reconocimiento de los derechos al territorio y los recursos de los pueblos tradicionales en áreas boscosas de América Latina.

    2011: CARTOGRAFÍA PARTICIPATIVA Y DERECHOS AL TERRITORIO Y LOS RECURSOS

    2011: CARTOGRAFÍA PARTICIPATIVA Y DERECHOS AL TERRITORIO Y LOS RECURSOS

    Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, 1-2 Junio 2011

    Astrid Ulloa - Universidad Nacional de Colombia

     

    Resumen: La cartografía social ha sido referenciada ampliamente por su potencial político, en cuanto herramienta de reivindicación de derechos colectivos de pueblos indígenas y afrodescendientes sobre sus territorios y recursos. A pesar de los avances logrados en el reconocimiento de derechos territoriales y culturales, estos territorios y recursos están en la mira de intereses nacionales y transnacionales. En este sentido, en lo local entran en juego un número creciente de actores globales e institucionales.

    2011 - Mapping the World’s Forests: Social Cartography and the New Global Context for Forest People’s Rights and Resources

    2011 - Mapping the World’s Forests: Social Cartography and the New Global Context for Forest People’s Rights and Resources

    Stefano Varese

     

    Session # 1 How we got here: Probing the “Territorial Turn” Cómo llegamos aquí: la vuelta a la territorialidad. Contra hegemonía indígena: el paisaje cósmico como territorio

    2011: MAPPING, TERRITORY and IDENTITY

    2011: MAPPING, TERRITORY and IDENTITY

    Alfredo Wagner Berno de Almeida

     

    Starting with identity categories and the map production process I intend to discuss preliminarily the idea of social mapping, showing that such initiatives fortify the struggle for territorial rights of the indigenous peoples and traditional communities which arrange themselves on the field of intrinsically disputes.

    2011: AGENDA -- CARTOGRAFÍA PARTICIPATIVA Y DERECHOS AL TERRITORIO Y LOS RECURSOS

    2011: AGENDA -- CARTOGRAFÍA PARTICIPATIVA Y DERECHOS AL TERRITORIO Y LOS RECURSOS

    RRI, Teresa Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies, Universidad de los Andes

     

    Agenda and Biographical notes of the forum in Spanish

    2011: Forum Session Abtracts

    2011: Forum Session Abtracts

    Forum on Participatory Mapping in Latin America

    Stefano Varese

     

    SESIÓN 1: ¿CÓMO LLEGAMOS AL PRESENTE? SESIÓN 2: ABORDAJES PRINCIPALES DE LA CARTOGRAFIA PARTICIPATIVA SESIÓN 3: ABORDAJES EMERGENTES Y HORIZONTES NUEVOS SESIÓN 4: TERRITORIO Y NUEVAS RELACIONES POLITICAS Y ECONOMICAS SESIÓN 5: CARTOGRAFÍA, TERRITORIO E IDENTIDAD

    Nepal's Climate Change Policies and Plans

    Nepal's Climate Change Policies and Plans

    Local Communities' Perspective

    - HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation Nepal

     

    This review examines the provisions in Nepal’s legal framework related to climate change and the local community’s rights. The review starts with the broader international climate change regime, the nuances of the international climate justice, and key aspects of international climate policy. After laying background on the concept and status of global climate change policy, the review delves into the national legislation. The review is meant to provide an in-depth assessment of the issues concerning the communities and how well the climate change related policies and regulations could address adaptation and mitigation options for those expected to be affected the most by climate change. It aims to reflect on their effectiveness and comprehensiveness from the community perspective. In addition, this analysis examines if these policies are just high-level documents, which may fail to acknowledge and address the actual needs and challenges at the local community level.

    South Asia Forest Tenure Assessment

    South Asia Forest Tenure Assessment

    - HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation Nepal

     

    This assessment report follows the conceptual framework developed by the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) in a publication - From Exclusion to Ownership (Sunderlin et al. 2008) for the collection and interpretation of tenure data for the selected South Asian countries, namely Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. For each country, the country consultants collected data; however, they also used data from RRI and FAO publications to supplement and triangulate their findings.

    Does Tenure Matter?

    Does Tenure Matter?

    Assessment of Change in Forest Cover in Nepal

    - HELVETAS Swiss Intercooperation Nepal

     

    This study is based on the mapping and analysis of the forest condition in different forest tenure regimes and is expected to benefit everyone who is interested in forest tenure regimes and their effect to environment. This study applied GIS and Remote Sensing as the major tools for the analysis. The study revealed that forests have improved in all tenure regimes. Community forestry did the best by increasing the new forest area by almost 33% and improving existing forest quality by 20%. In comparison, the government managed forest regime increased the new forest area by 17% and improved the quality of forest by 15%.

    Two decades of Community Forestry in Nepal

    Two decades of Community Forestry in Nepal

    What have we Learned?

    Nepal Swiss Community Forestry Project - HELVETAS-Swiss Intercooperation

     

    Development projects conceived now are rarely expected to have a life of more than five years, perhaps ten years at most. Looking back over more than twenty years of project experience in community forestry - itself grounded on an integrated development project of a similar time span - is thus a rare opportunity. Of course trees and forests require a longer establishment period than many other development interventions, and that is part of the rationale for a long time frame – but not the only one. The project has also sought to promote social change in favour of the poor and disadvantaged, and it was recognised both by those involved in the project and by independent evaluators that this is not rapidly achieved.

    Forest Tenure and Policies in Lao PDR

    Forest Tenure and Policies in Lao PDR

    National Workshop Proceedings, 28-29 November 2011

    RECOFTC, RRI, Ministry of Agriculture and Forest - The Center for People and Forests, Rights and Resources Initiative, Lao PDR

     

    A national workshop on Forest Tenure and Policies in Lao PDR was held in Vientiane from 28-29 November, 2011. The workshop was hosted by the Department of Forests of Lao PDR, with support from RECOFTC – the Center for People and Forests and the Rights and Resources Initiatives (RRI). The key objective of the workshop was to continue the process of learning on forest land tenure reform from various countries, review and reflect on the current states of forest tenure in Lao PDR, and work out on pathways to forest tenure change.

    Redd Lights: Who Owns the Carbon Forests and Trees?

    Redd Lights: Who Owns the Carbon Forests and Trees?

    Carbon ownership as the basis of social accountability: The case of the Philippeans

    Antonio G.M. LaViña; Owen J. Lynch - Ateno School of Government (ASOG); College of Law, University of the Philippeans

     

    This paper argues in favor of the ownership by indigenous peoples and local communities of carbon in forests and trees and that such ownership could be the basis of social accountability that should be mainstreamed in implementing what is popularly known as the REDD-Plus mechanism.

    La tenure foncière et forestière en République démocratique du Congo [RDC] : Une question critique, des vues centrifuges.

    La tenure foncière et forestière en République démocratique du Congo [RDC] : Une question critique, des vues centrifuges.

    Revue compréhensive de la littérature

    Oyono, Phil René

     

    Les lectures longitudinales et synchroniques de la question de la tenure foncière et forestière en RD Congo sont, ouvertement, centrifuges: cet éclatement idéologique est un aliment pour la science, l’actionpublique, l’intervention et le pluralisme. Pour des raisons méthodologiques, nous parlerons davantage de la « tenure foncière » dans la plus grande partie de cet essai. Ce choix conceptuel s’explique par le fait que la plus grande portion de la littérature considérée dans cette revue ne traite, jusqu’à une date récente, que de la « tenure foncière ». Le concept de « tenure forestière » n’apparaît que plus tard, dans ce qu’il convient d’appeler la littérature « post-décentralisation » concentrée sur cette question depuis les années 2000 (Oyono et Lelo Nzuzi 2006). Nous allons donc nous accommoder du concept de « tenure foncière », ou de la synonymie induite, en dépit des différenciations qui peuvent exister entre « tenure foncière » et « tenure forestière ».

    Land and Power

    Land and Power

    The growing scandal surrounding the new wave of investments in land

    Bertram Zagema - Oxfam

     

    This paper looks in detail at five land grabs: in Uganda, Indonesia, Guatemala, Honduras, and South Sudan. It seeks: to understand the impact of land grabs on poor people and their communities; to identify the underlying factors between companies, local communities, and host governments; and to examine the roles played by international investors and home-country governments.

    An economic case for tenure reform in Indonesia's forests

    An economic case for tenure reform in Indonesia's forests

    Dominic Elson

     

    A new briefing paper by RRI and independent analyst Dominic Elson summarizing the struggle for tenure rights and current measures to decrease deforestation and emissions across the world, with particular reference to Indonesia. The paper takes into consideration the multiple actors at play in government and civil society who are trying to place these changes in political and livelihoods contexts – too often from conflicting vantage points. This analysis draws on information from various sources to present the current “state of play” in Indonesia—which has emerged as a key country in the global effort to reduce forest-based emissions. Much attention has been given in the global debate to the argument that reducing carbon emissions from forests could greatly slow economic growth in developing countries across the globe. This analysis presents provocative evidence showing that, in fact, the opposite may be true: in countries where equitable tenure regimes are supported, new pathways to a “low-carbon” economy emerge.

    The Greener Side of REDD+

    The Greener Side of REDD+

    Lessons for REDD+ from Countries where Forest Area is Increasing

    Hans Gregersen, Hosny El Lakany, Luke Bailey, Andy White - Rights and Resources, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry

     

    In the last decade, countries have committed major resources to reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD). A debate continues on how REDD financing should include related activities, such as the enhancement of carbon stocks through afforestation, reforestation and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Meanwhile, several countries have added to their net forest area with little fanfare or donor funding. This paper assesses the factors that underpin the transition from net deforesters to net forest growers in China, South Korea, Vietnam, India and Chile. The authors review the literature on forest policy processes and government-led reforestation and restoration programs, and find their success relied on government support at the highest levels, and forest governance reforms (particularly land and resource tenure systems) to incentivize good forest management and tree-planting. However, constraints to wood supply have caused some countries to rely on wood imports and “export” deforestation, diminishing global carbon benefits. The authors argue that the experiences of these reforesting countries carry implications for current REDD countries. Reforestation programs appear to have a clearer benefit for the rural poor in forest areas than REDD programs. However, both depend on improvements to forest governance and forest tenure. Major reforestation activities must be included to effectively confront leakage and additionality issues inherent in REDD. In sum, while debates on REDD implementation continue at the international level, the authors conclude that improving forest stocks is a necessary complement to successful REDD and recommend that national policymakers focus serious effort on these activities.

     

    Associated Documents

    The Greener Side of REDD+ The Greener Side of REDD+
    Lessons for REDD+ from Countries where Forest Area is Increasing - Policy Brief
    Hans Gregersen, Hosny El-Lakany, Luke Bailey, Andy White - Rights and Resources, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry
    Sisi REDD+ Yang Hijau Rimbun Sisi REDD+ Yang Hijau Rimbun
    Pelajaran bagi REDD+ dari Negara-negara yang Kawasan Hutannya Bertambah Luas – Laporan Ringkas Kebijakan
    Hans Gregersen, Hosny El-Lakany, Luke Bailey, Andy White - Rights and Resources, University of British Columbia, Faculty of Forestry
    RRI Press Kit RRI Press Kit
    Bahasa Indonesia
    - Rights and Resources
    RRI Press Kit RRI Press Kit
    English
    - Rights and Resources
    Final Agenda

    Final Agenda

    Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: Experiences and Opportunities for Asia in a Changing Context

    - Rights and Resources, ITTO, Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia

     

    This is the final agenda for the conference Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: Experiences and Opportunities for Asia in a Changing Context, taking place 11 -15 July 2011 on Lombok Island, Indonesia.

    Importance of Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in Implementing a Climate Change Sensitive Development Agenda

    Importance of Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in Implementing a Climate Change Sensitive Development Agenda

    Keynote Addess from the International Conference on Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise

    Kuntoro Mankusubroto - Head of the President's Special Delivery Unit, Indonesia

     

    In this keynote address given at the regional meeting of the leading actors on forests, enterprises and climate change in Lombok, Indonesia, the Head of the President’s Special Delivery Unit, Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, announced the government’s intention to “recognize, respect and protect Adat rights,” implementing a parliamentary decree that has been on the books for 10 years, but rarely implemented.

    What Rights? Measuring the Depth of Indigenous Peoples and Community Forest Tenure

    What Rights? Measuring the Depth of Indigenous Peoples and Community Forest Tenure

    Preliminary Findings from a Legal Analysis of 33 Forest Tenure Regimes in 15 Countries

    Fernanda Almeida, Jeffrey Hatcher - Rights and Resources

     

    This brief is part of our What Rights? Measuring the Depth of Indigenous Peoples and Community Forest Tenure analysis. It presents our preliminary results of a legal analysis of 33 Community Forest Tenure Regimes in 15 Countries (Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, China, Colombia, DRC, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Mozambique, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Venezuela and Zambia). To access more information on this brief, please go to http://www.rightsandresources.org/tenuredata/.

    Indonesian Government announces dramatic shift  in forest policy; signals commitment to expand rights  of communities, indigenous peoples

    Indonesian Government announces dramatic shift in forest policy; signals commitment to expand rights of communities, indigenous peoples

    Statement from international conference Indonesian Government announces dramatic shift in forest policy; signals commitment to expand rights of communities, indigenous peoples

    - Rights and Resources

     

    This is a statement covering major speech given on the second day of the international conference Indonesian Government announces dramatic shift in forest policy; signals commitment to expand rights of communities, indigenous peoples taking place 11 - 15 July 2011 in Lombok, Indonesia.

    LEARNING FROM DIFFERENT LEVELS

    LEARNING FROM DIFFERENT LEVELS

    LESSONS ON HOW TO MAKE PROGRESS AND WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE TO ADVANCE TENURE REFORM

    Victoria Tauli-Corpuz - TEBTEBBA

     

    Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, Executive Director of TEBTEBBA, presented the attached as the final keynote speaker at the International Conference on Forest Tenure, Governance, and Enterprises in Lombok, Indonesia on July 15, 2011.

    Unlocking the Potential of Forests through Tenure Reform

    Unlocking the Potential of Forests through Tenure Reform

    Key messages and recommendations from the International Conference on Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: Experiences and Opportunities for Asia in a Changing Context

    - RRI, ITTO, Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, Indonesian CSO Groups

     

    Under the distinguished patronage of the Government of Indonesia, the International Conference on Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: Experiences and Opportunities for Asia in a Changing Context took place at the Santosa Villas and Resort, Lombok, Indonesia. The conference was organized by the Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia, the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), with the support of 20 other organizations, including the Global Alliance of Community Forestry (GACF). The opening ceremony was presided by Vice President Boediono and attended by Zulkifli Hassan, Minister of Forestry; Mohammad Nuh, Minister of Education; Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, Minister and Chair of the President’s Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight; TGH. M. Zainul Majdi, Governor of West Nusa Tenggara Province; Emmanuel Ze Meka, Executive Director of ITTO; Hedar Laujeng, Chair of the Community Chamber of Indonesia’s National Forest Council; and Andy White, Coordinator of the Rights and Resources Initiative. About 300 participants composed of experts from Indonesia and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam), from Europe (Italy, Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom), Africa (Cameroon, Kenya, Liberia), the Americas (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Nicaragua, United States), regional organizations (RECOFTC, REFACOF, Samdhana Institute), and international organizations (FAO, GACF, ICRAF, ITTO, RRI, TRAFFIC, UNFF, WRI), representatives of governments, civil society, local communities, traditional authorities, elected officials, and donors (Ford Foundation/Climate and Land Use Alliance, GIZ, EU-EFI FLEGT Asia, JICA, UK Climate Change Unit) took part in this important gathering, worked together to create, and have agreed upon the attached key messages and recommendations from the conference.

    Compensation for Ecosystem Services: Directions, Potentials and Pitfalls for Rural Communities

    Compensation for Ecosystem Services: Directions, Potentials and Pitfalls for Rural Communities

    Susan Kandel, Nelson Cuellar - PRISMA

     

    This policy brief discusses the current thoughts on Payments for Environmental Services (PES) and their potential impact on rural communities.

    Prioritizing Food Security and Livelihoods in Climate Change Mitigation Mechanisms

    Prioritizing Food Security and Livelihoods in Climate Change Mitigation Mechanisms

    Susan Kandel, Nelson Cuellar - PRISMA

     

    This policy brief discusses which methods of climate change mitigation are most effective in halting deforestation and promoting sustainable forest management while ensuring the involvement of rural communities in the decision-making process.

    Tenth RRI Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change

    Tenth RRI Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change

    Agenda

    - Rights and Resources

     

    Agenda for the Tenth RRI Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change taking place 7-8 September 2011 in The Hague, Netherlands.

    Global Alliance of Community Forestry (GACF) Lombok Declaration

    Global Alliance of Community Forestry (GACF) Lombok Declaration

    Final Declaration from the GACF Annual Meeting and Workshop

    Global Alliance of Community Forestry - (GACF)

     

    The Global Alliance of Community Forestry (GACF), after successfully completing its third regional workshop on ” Strengthening Community Forestry Federation/Networks” in conjunction with its annual planning meeting in Lumbok, Indonesia from July 9 – 10, 2011 releases its Lombok Declaration. This 12-point declaration reflects on and reviews the GACF's previous Kathmandu and Bangkok declarations published in November 2008 & March 2010, respectively. This declaration also outlines potential GACF strategies and was finalized on the workshop floor with the unanimous agreement on the additional strategies and action plans for ensuring the rights of forest-dependent peoples and local communities and promoting their agenda at the local and global levels.

    FPP Annual Report 2010

    FPP Annual Report 2010

    - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    This report details the efforts of the Forest Peoples Programme on behalf of indigenous forest peoples during 2010 and the ongoing projects that will remain relevant throughout 2011.

    Mandating Recognition

    Mandating Recognition

    International Law and Native/ Aboriginal Title

    Owen J. Lynch - Rights and Resources

     

    This essay identifies, summarizes and analyzes leading international and national laws and judicial cases recognizing or otherwise supportive of native/aboriginal title. Native/aboriginal titles are community- based property rights (CBPRs) typically held by indigenous peoples and some other original, long-termoccupant local communities. The paper evinces widespread and growing evidence that international law is moving towards (and arguably already is) mandating legal recognition of native/aboriginal title to indigenous territories and ancestral domains. It references decisions of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the Inter-American Court (IAC), and the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights (N.B. Asia has yet to constitute any juridical entity comparable to the IAC or its European and African counterparts). This emerging mandate in favor of native/aboriginal title is also apparent in international conventions and declarations, as well as at least fourteen nation states that are already obliged under domestic law, albeit in differing ways, to recognize indigenous peoples’ and others’ native/aboriginal titles. In addition, since 1968 eleven African nations have recognized customary rights as including property rights in their constitutions and/or land laws, as have major international law conventions, declarations and other instruments that are supportive of native/aboriginal title and are also identified. Finally, the paper summarizes leading cases and instruments in comparative/national (international customary) laws that are likewise supportive of legal recognition. The essay is not intended to be exhaustive; nor can it be one-hundred percent up to date. Rather, it establishes that the trend in international law -- as conventionally understood, as well as customary international law, as evinced in the domestic law of a growing number of nation-states -- is moving towards mandating the legal recognition of native/aboriginal title.

    REDD+ and carbon markets: 10 Myths Exploded

    REDD+ and carbon markets: 10 Myths Exploded

    - FERN, Friends of the Earth, The Rainforest Foundation UK, Greenpeace

     

    This report cites RRI's position on the drivers of deforestation as it aims to debunk ten common misconceptions about global carbon markets and their ability to prevent further deforestation.

    RRI Press Kit

    RRI Press Kit

    Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: Experiences and Opportunities for Asia in a Changing Context

    - Rights and Resources

     

    RRI Press Kit for media attending Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: Experiences and Opportunities for Asia in a Changing Context, 11-15 July 2011.

    Global Corruption Report

    Global Corruption Report

    Climate Change

    Jeffrey Hatcher, Luke Bailey - Transparency International, Rigths and Resources

     

    The global response to climate change will demand unprecedented international cooperation, deep economic transformation and resource transfers at a significant scale. Corruption threatens to jeopardize these efforts. Transparency International’s Global Corruption Report: Climate Change is the first publication to comprehensively explore major climate-related corruption risks. The book provides essential analysis to help policy-makers, practitioners and other stakeholders understand risks and develop effective responses at a critical moment when the main architecture for climate governance is being developed. RRI Director of Global Programs, Jeffrey Hatcher and Senior Associate of Policy Analyst, Luke Bailey contributed a chapter on Governance and REDD+ (see chapter 6.2).

    Indigenous and Tribal Peoples' Rights over their Ancestral Lands and Natural Resources

    Indigenous and Tribal Peoples' Rights over their Ancestral Lands and Natural Resources

    Norms and Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Human Rights System

    Inter-American Commission on Human Rights - Organization of American States

     

    Indigenous and tribal peoples have unique ways of life, and their worldview is based on their close relationship with land. The lands they traditionally use and occupy are critical to their physical, cultural and spiritual vitality. This unique relationship to traditional territory may be expressed in different ways, depending on the particular indigenous people involved and its specific circumstances; it may include traditional use or presence, maintenance of sacred or ceremonial sites, settlements or sporadic cultivation, seasonal or nomadic gathering, hunting and fishing, the customary use of natural resources or other elements characterizing indigenous or tribal culture. As the Inter‐American Court of Human Rights has pointed out, “for indigenous communities, relations to the land are not merely a matter of possession and production but a material and spiritual element which they must fully enjoy, even to preserve their cultural legacy and transmit it to future generations.” “[T]o guarantee the right of indigenous peoples to communal property, it is necessary to take into account that the land is closely linked to their oral expressions and traditions, their customs and languages, their arts and rituals, their knowledge and practices in connection with nature, culinary art, customary law, dress, philosophy, and values.” The Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has also concluded that indigenous peoples’ territorial rights are unique, and encompass a tradition and a cultural identification of indigenous peoples with their lands which has been generally recognized.

    Indigenous and Tribal Peoples' Rights over their Ancestral Lands and Natural Resources

    Indigenous and Tribal Peoples' Rights over their Ancestral Lands and Natural Resources

    Norms and Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Human Rights System

    Inter-American Commission on Human Rights - Organization of American States

     

    Indigenous and tribal peoples have unique ways of life, and their worldview is based on their close relationship with land. The lands they traditionally use and occupy are critical to their physical, cultural and spiritual vitality. This unique relationship to traditional territory may be expressed in different ways, depending on the particular indigenous people involved and its specific circumstances; it may include traditional use or presence, maintenance of sacred or ceremonial sites, settlements or sporadic cultivation, seasonal or nomadic gathering, hunting and fishing, the customary use of natural resources or other elements characterizing indigenous or tribal culture. As the Inter‐American Court of Human Rights has pointed out, “for indigenous communities, relations to the land are not merely a matter of possession and production but a material and spiritual element which they must fully enjoy, even to preserve their cultural legacy and transmit it to future generations.” “[T]o guarantee the right of indigenous peoples to communal property, it is necessary to take into account that the land is closely linked to their oral expressions and traditions, their customs and languages, their arts and rituals, their knowledge and practices in connection with nature, culinary art, customary law, dress, philosophy, and values.” The Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has also concluded that indigenous peoples’ territorial rights are unique, and encompass a tradition and a cultural identification of indigenous peoples with their lands which has been generally recognized.

    Global trends – implications on the development and use of natural resources

    Global trends – implications on the development and use of natural resources

    Agenda and Description

    - Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry, Rights and Resources

     

    This is the full description and agenda for the meeting "Global trends – implications on the development and use of natural resources” taking place on 8 June in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Gender and REDD+

    Gender and REDD+

    An Asia Regional Analysis (DRAFT)

    Jeannette Gurung, Kalpana Giri, Abidah Billah Setyowati, Elizabeth Lebow - USAID, WOCAN, USFS

     

    The purpose of this assessment is to provide a summary of gender components of REDD+ programs in Asia, a sub-regional summary of women’s forest use and role in forest management and governance, and recommendations for how upcoming programs can mainstream gender considerations into REDD+ projects by learning from and building upon current regional REDD+ models, to ensure that USAID assistance makes the optimal contribution to gender equality.

    The Indigenous World 2011

    The Indigenous World 2011

    - International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs

     

    The articles included in this report summarize the status of indigenous peoples' rights around the world, showing that indigenous peoples' participation in decision-making and the right to free, prior and informed consent are at the core of indigenous peoples' rights.

    Closing Statement, 40th Session of the ITTC

    Closing Statement, 40th Session of the ITTC

    ITTO Civil Society Advisory Group

    - ITTO CSAG

     

    This is the closing statement given on behalf of the Civil Society Advisory Group to the International Tropical Timber Organization at the 40th Session of the ITTC in Merida, Mexico on June 1, 2006.

    Plan d'Actions Strategiques 2011 - 2015

    Plan d'Actions Strategiques 2011 - 2015

    REFACOF

    - REFACOF

     

    This is the draft strategic plan for REFACOF for 2011 - 2015

    RRI Impact Story

    RRI Impact Story

    CSR is Not Enough: RRI Report's "wake-up call" to Global Paper Giant Protects Local Rights in Hepu County, China

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    A briefing that showcases how an RRI study helped protect Chinese landowners from illegal land grabs by global paper manufacturer Stora Enso.

     

    Associated Documents

    Dampak RRI Cerita Dampak RRI Cerita
    CSR Saja tidak Cukup - “Sirene Peringatan” Laporan RRI kepada Raksasa Kertas Dunia: Lindungi Hak Masyarakat Setempat di Daerah Hepu, Cina
    - Rights and Resources
    Community Mapping

    Community Mapping

    An Alternative Advocacy Tool For Ensuring That Land And Natural Resources Management Are Right, Pro Poor And Tenure Based In Liberia

    Alfred Lahai Gbabai Brownell, Sr. - Green Advocates

     

    Community Mapping: An Alternative Advocacy Tool For Ensuring That Land And Natural Resources Management Are Right, Pro Poor And Tenure Based In Liberia

    Programme - Atelier sur la Cartographie Participative et Macro-Zonage en RDC

    Programme - Atelier sur la Cartographie Participative et Macro-Zonage en RDC

    RRI

     

    Programme - Atelier sur la Cartographie Participative et Macro-Zonage en RDC

    Smoke and Mirrors

    Smoke and Mirrors

    A Critical Assessment of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

    Kate Dooley, Tom Griffiths, Francesco Martone, Saskia Ozinga - FERN UK, Forest Peoples Programme

     

    In December 2007 the World Bank launched its Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) to act as a catalyst to promote public and private investment in ‘REDD’ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation). As the FCPF completed its first year of activities in 2008, FERN and FPP undertook a critical review of the REDD concept notes presented to the FCPF by tropical forest countries. Our review, ‘Cutting Corners’, concluded that the process had been rushed, with little to no consultation with indigenous peoples, local communities or civil society organisations, and failed to meet the Bank’s own standards. This report presents findings of a follow-up review. We have found that the FCPF is still failing to fulfil its social and environmental commitments, while national REDD Readiness Preparation Proposals (R-PPs) lack sufficient plans for policy and legal reforms that would uphold forest peoples’ rights, improve forest governance and reduce deforestation.

     

    Associated Documents

    Agenda du 2e Forum International sur les Peuples Autochtones

    Agenda du 2e Forum International sur les Peuples Autochtones

    RRI

     

    Agenda du 2e Forum International sur les Peuples Autochtones par RRI

    Affiche FIPAC 2 : 'oui pour la gestion durable des ressources, oui pour la justice et l'équité'

    Affiche FIPAC 2 : "oui pour la gestion durable des ressources, oui pour la justice et l'équité"

    RRI

     

    Affiche FIPAC 2 : "oui pour la gestion durable des ressources, oui pour la justice et l'équité"

    Affiche FIPAC 2: 'Conservation et développement en Afrique Centrale: notre point de vue est incontournable dans la prise de décision'

    Affiche FIPAC 2: "Conservation et développement en Afrique Centrale: notre point de vue est incontournable dans la prise de décision"

    RRI

     

    Affiche FIPAC 2: "Conservation et développement en Afrique Centrale: notre point de vue est incontournable dans la prise de décision"

    REDD AND FOREST CARBON

    REDD AND FOREST CARBON

    Market-Based Critique and Recommendations

    - The Munden Project

     

    The Munden Project Report is intended as a market-based critique of REDD’s tacit design for forest carbon markets and provides some broad recommendations for an improved approach to filling REDD’s investment gap. In this paper they examine REDD from a market perspective, using relevant experience in derivatives trading and systems architecture to examine its mechanisms for financing forest preservation through capital invested in forest carbon markets. Taking the perspective of a software developer presented with a new product concept, the Munden Project begins following questions: what is the system intended to achieve? Why is that outcome worth the investment of time, money and effort required not just to produce, but more importantly, to maintain and operate the system? And, most importantly, what impact is that system likely to have? The Munden Project was founded in 2009 to develop solutions for addressing a new breed of complex, systemic issues.

    Designing a REDD+ Program that Benefits Forestry Communities in Mesoamerica

    Designing a REDD+ Program that Benefits Forestry Communities in Mesoamerica

    - PRISMA, Grupo Cabal

     

    This paper is an integrated synthesis of the primary results of the project "Designing a REDD Program that Benefits Forestry Communities in Mesoamerica" implemented from October 2009 to September 2010 by Fundación PRISMA and Grupo CABAL. The objective of this project was to orient the actions of the Climate Works Foundation in Mesoamerica, under the concept of a Mesoamerican Program on Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation that includes the equity and social justice concerns of indigenous peoples and forestry communities.

     

    Associated Documents

    The value of investing in locally-controlled forestry

    The value of investing in locally-controlled forestry

    The economic impacts of scaling up LLS experiences in Africa, Asia & Latin America

    - IUCN

     

    A report published by IUCN reviewing existing forest use and management data in order to calculate the value of breaking down barriers to locally-controlled forestry in tropical and developing countries throughout Asia, Africa and Latin America.

    Social and Ecological Synergy

    Social and Ecological Synergy

    Local Rulemaking, Forest Livelihoods, and Biodiversity Conservation

    Lauren Persha, Arun Agrawal, Ashwini Chhatre - IFRI

     

    New research highlighted in Science finds that there is a greater likelihood of a forest providing higher subsistence livelihood benefits to local populations, and also having higher levels of biodiversity, when local forest users have a right to participate in forest governance by making rules over the management and use of the forest. Please contact Dr. Lauren Persha (lpersha@umich.org) for a copy of the article.

    Large acquisition of rights on forest lands for tropical timber concessions and commercial wood plantations

    Large acquisition of rights on forest lands for tropical timber concessions and commercial wood plantations

    Augusta Molnar, Keith Barney, Michael DeVito, Alain Karsenty, Dominic Elson, Margarita Benavides, Pedro Tipula, Carlos Soria, Phil Shearman, Marina France - Rights and Resources, CIRAD

     

    In 2008, at the same time as the food price crisis pushed the number of hungry over the one billion mark, members of ILC launched a global research project to better understand the implications of the growing wave of international large-scale investments in land. Small-scale producers have always faced competition for the land on which their livelihoods depend. It is evident, however, that changes in demand for food, energy and natural resources, alongside liberalisation of trade regimes, are making the competition for land increasingly global and increasingly unequal.

    PUSHBACK

    PUSHBACK

    Local Power, Global Realignment

    - Rights and Resources

     

    If 2009 was the end of the hinterland and the beginning of a new globalized forest era, 2010 was a year of pushback. Worldwide, the news was full of reports of forest communities and Indigenous Peoples pushing back at land grabs and shaping policy at the national and global levels, and of governments countering and trying to contain community rights. Some governments and private investors accepted or even embraced the new players at the table and began to promote fairer business and conservation models. There was also new soaring rhetoric about the centrality of tenure reform to efforts addressing climate change. Unfortunately, none of this added up to significant global progress in the recognition of local land and resource rights.

    As we look ahead to 2011, we see higher risks of climate-driven disaster, food insecurity, and political upheaval, and a world realigning. Yet, at the same time, shifts in markets, technology and policy offer tremendous opportunity, and 2011 offers more potential than ever to advance the rights and livelihoods of forest communities. With multilateral arrangements weak and wobbly, the arena for action has shifted to the national level. Will the rhetoric on rights be matched by recognition on the ground? Now that Indigenous Peoples and forest communities have more seats at the table, will they be allowed to speak and, if they are, will they be listened to? Who will ally with forest communities and help them advance their own aspirations and, more important, who will the forest communities choose as allies?

    This report takes stock of the current status of forest rights and tenure globally, assesses the key issues and events of 2010 that shape possibilities to improve local rights and livelihoods, and identifies key questions and challenges that the world will face in 2011.

     

    Associated Documents

    Resistencia y Transformación Social Resistencia y Transformación Social
    Poder Local, Realineamiento Global
    - Rights and Resources
    Penolakan Penolakan
    Kekuatan Lokal, Penataan Ulang Dunia
    - Rights and Resources
    Résistances Résistances
    Pouvoirs Locaux, Réajustements Mondiaux
    - Rights and Resources
    Large-Scale Acquisition of Rights on Forest Lands in Africa

    Large-Scale Acquisition of Rights on Forest Lands in Africa

    Alain Karsenty - CIRAD

     

    This report seeks to answer whether timber concessions allocated in Central Africa can be considered as part of the large-scale land acquisition (LSLA) process that is currently the subject of international debate, mainly targeting arable lands.

    Declaracion de Pachacamak sobre Politicas y Estrategias de los Pueblos Indigenas y Communidades Locales de Latino America ante el Fondo de Inversion Forestal

    Declaracion de Pachacamak sobre Politicas y Estrategias de los Pueblos Indigenas y Communidades Locales de Latino America ante el Fondo de Inversion Forestal

    Conferencia Regional Latinoamericana sobre Pueblos Indígenas y Comunidades Locales

    - COICA, CAOI, CICA, AIDESEP, AIPIBT, ACICAFOC, Mixes

     

    Declaracion de Pachacamak sobre Politicas y Estrategias de los Pueblos Indígenas y Comunidades Locales de Latino America ante el Fondo de Inversion Forestal, Casa Atinchik – Pachacamac, Lima – Perú, 02 al 04 de febrero de 2011.

    INDIA: Tribal Movements Score Historic Victory Against Multinational Corporation

    INDIA: Tribal Movements Score Historic Victory Against Multinational Corporation

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment.

    KENYA: New Constitution Ushers in Women’s Land Rights

    KENYA: New Constitution Ushers in Women’s Land Rights

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    COLOMBIA: Court Suspends Militarized Mining Operations on Afro-Descendant Lands

    COLOMBIA: Court Suspends Militarized Mining Operations on Afro-Descendant Lands

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    MALI: Farmers Resist Land Deals – “Le Mali n’est pas à Vendre”

    MALI: Farmers Resist Land Deals – “Le Mali n’est pas à Vendre”

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    CHINA: Whither CSR? Illegal Forest Land Grab Shows Limits of Voluntary Standards

    CHINA: Whither CSR? Illegal Forest Land Grab Shows Limits of Voluntary Standards

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    INDONESIA: Civil Society Platform for Safeguarding Community Rights in RED

    INDONESIA: Civil Society Platform for Safeguarding Community Rights in RED

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    UNITED STATES: Recognizing First Peoples, Past Wrongs, and UNDRIP – But Action Needed to Match Words

    UNITED STATES: Recognizing First Peoples, Past Wrongs, and UNDRIP – But Action Needed to Match Words

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    Whose land is it?

    Whose land is it?

    The status of customary land tenure in Cameroon

    Liz Alden Wily - FERN, CED Cameroon, Rainforest Foundation UK

     

    Rural Cameroonians are deeply insecure in their land tenure. National law provides some security of occupancy for unregistered house plots and farms, but only to the extent that (limited) compensation is payable for loss of permanent crops or infrastructure when the government requires the land for other purposes.

    Rights and Resources Initiative Informational Brochure

    Rights and Resources Initiative Informational Brochure

    RRI

     

    Rights and Resources Initiative Informational Brochure in English. Learn more about RRI, our Partners and the work that we do.

    RRI Impact Story

    RRI Impact Story

    Brazil: Spurring a Progressive Forest Policy Framework

    - Rights and Resources

     

    In celebration of the 5th anniversary of the Rights and Resources Initiative, several briefings have been prepared sharing the impacts that the RRI Coalition has achieved around the world.

     

    Associated Documents

    Dampak RRI Cerita Dampak RRI Cerita
    Brazil: Mendorong Sebuah Kerangka Kebijakan Kehutanan Yang Progresif
    - Rights and Resources
    RRI Impact Story

    RRI Impact Story

    The Rights and Resources Initiative: Advocacy for Community Forestry in the ITTO

    - Rights and Resources

     

    In celebration of the 5th anniversary of the Rights and Resources Initiative, several briefings have been prepared sharing the impacts that the RRI Coalition has achieved around the world.

     

    Associated Documents

    Dampak RRI Cerita Dampak RRI Cerita
    Rights and Resources Initiative: Advokasi Kehutanan Masyarakat dalam ITTO
    - Rights and Resources
    RRI Impact Story

    RRI Impact Story

    The Rights and Resources Initiative and Forest Tenure Reform in China

    - Rights and Resources

     

    In celebration of the 5th anniversary of the Rights and Resources Initiative, several briefings have been prepared sharing the impacts that the RRI Coalition has achieved around the world.

     

    Associated Documents

    Dampak RRI Cerita Dampak RRI Cerita
    Rights and Resources Initiative dan Pembaruan Tenurial Hutan di Cina
    - Rights and Resources
    Community Based Forest Management

    Community Based Forest Management

    The Extent and Potential Scope of Community and Smallholder Forest Management and Enterprises

    Augusta Molnar, Marina France, Lopaka Purdy, Jonathan Karver - Rights and Resources Group

     

    CBFEs are truly local institutions; this is one of the reasons for the diversity of models on which they are based. It is also a reason why, as a development strategy, they bypass many of the costs and hurdles other development initiatives face in implementation. Created on the ground by local actors, they are well adapted to local social, cultural, and economic conditions and landscapes. Unlike large export- and commodity-driven business models, CBFEs are intrinsically tied to the communities in which they operate. They therefore provide local communities with many vital opportunities: local employment and revenue, sustainable production and trade of required goods and services, and wealth that stays within the community. To maximize the potential of community-based forest management and CBFEs, concerted action is needed on the part of governments to create a level playing field for communities and smallholders in fiscal policy and regulations, access to technical and financial services, and the marketplace. In many developing countries, CBFEs and other SMFEs are often relegated by statutory law and regulation to an informal economy and a ‘shadow’ marketplace in which they are unable to realize their natural competitiveness.

    Making REAL(U) Right

    Making REAL(U) Right

    Harmonizing Agriculture, Forests and Rights in the Design of REDD+

    Sara J. Scherr, Seth Shames, Courtney Wallace, Jeffrey Hatcher, Andy White, Peter Minang - EcoAgriculture Partners

     

    This brief is an attempt to bring the issue of agriculture and the associated tenure rights implications into the dialogue on REDD+.

    Small Scale, Large Impacts

    Small Scale, Large Impacts

    Transforming Central and West African Forest Tenure and Industry to Improve Sustainable Development, Growth, and Governance

    Augusta Molnar, Peter Mbile, Solange Bandiaky, Rob Kozak, Kerstin Canby, Marina France - Rights and Resources

     

    This report presents a body of new evidence on the opportunities for a more diverse and equitable forest economy which balances conservation, timber and wood-based production and industry, non-timber production, harvesting and trade and new ecotourism or ecological service enterprise. A renewed forest economy must reconcile the demands for national economic growth and the needs of forest communities and marginalized to remain relevant. This opportunity is linked to a tenure transition that supports strong local governance and forest resource tenure and rights, balancing multiple interests and stakeholders, through legal pluralism and nested, or multi-layered, tenure regimes.

    CIFOR Info Brief No. 34: The local social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion

    CIFOR Info Brief No. 34: The local social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion

    L. German, G. Schoneveld, M. Skutch, R. Andriani, K. Obidzinski, P. Pacheco, H. Komarudin, A. Andrianto, M. Lima, A.A.B. Dayang Norwana - CIFOR

     

    A synthesis of six case studies conducted in southeast Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America on the social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion.

    Making the Forest Sector Transparent

    Making the Forest Sector Transparent

    Annual Transparency Report 2009

    - Global Witness

     

    This is a global forestry sector assessment from Global Witness. This report is based on research and assessments up to December 2009. Finalization of the text took place in July 2010.

    Statement, ITTO 46th Session

    Statement, ITTO 46th Session

    ITTO Civil Society Advisory Group

    - ITTO CSAG

     

    This is a statement given on behalf of the Civil Society Advisory Group to the International Tropical Timber Organization at the ITTO 46th Session of the ITTO in Yokohama, Japan in December 2010.

    Side evnet on Gender and Community-Based Forest Management: Forest Tenure and Enterprises Linkages

    Side evnet on Gender and Community-Based Forest Management: Forest Tenure and Enterprises Linkages

    Forty-sixth Session of the International Tropical Timber Council

    - ITTO CSAG

     

    This is the announcement on behalf of the Civil Society Advisory Group's side event "Gender and Community-Based Forest Management: Forest Tenure and Enterprises Linkages" presented at the 46th Session of the International Tropical Timber Council in Yokohama, Japan on 17 December 2010.

    RaTA

    RaTA

    A Rapid Land Tenure Assessment Manual for Identifying the Nature of Land Tenure Conflicts

    Gamma Galudra, Martua Sirait, Gamal Pasya, Chip Fay, Suyanto, Meine van Noordwijk, Ujjwal Pradhan - World Agroforestry Centre

     

    This Manual is not a comparative analysis of different systems and methods, nor is it a theoretical investigation on land tenure approaches. Many rapid appraisal methods share similar global objectives and principles, and different methodological frameworks can be used. The Manual does not intend to provide an overall view of these methods. Instead, the Manual is primarily an educational instrument for readers looking for new, efficient and adapted methods and tools. It aims to obtain immediate results by offering a tried and tested methodology for immediate field use. The Manual offers practical tools developed all over Indonesia in World Agroforestry Centre-South East Asia projects and used by other development agencies in the past few years. It should also contribute, however, to improved investigation and development skills amongst those carrying out field studies. This is even more important because it is also a self-training process for those carrying out the project.

    Sustainable Forest Management as a Strategy to Combat Climate Change

    Sustainable Forest Management as a Strategy to Combat Climate Change

    Lessons from Mexican Communities

    Deborah Barry, David Bray, Sergio Madrid, Leticia Merino, Ivan Zuñiga - Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible (CCMSS), Rights and Resources

     

    This study presents the results of recent studies of community forest management in Mexico in the belief that it can inspire other countries and peoples to follow similar paths. Devolving rights over forest land and its resources, including carbon, to the local level is not a panacea for deforestation and forest degradation or the only necessary ingredient for forest-based carbon capture.

     

    Associated Documents

    El Manejo forestal sostenible como estrategia de combate al cambio climático El Manejo forestal sostenible como estrategia de combate al cambio climático
    Las communidades nos muestran el camino
    Deborah Barry, David Bray, Sergio Madrid, Leticia Merino, Ivan Zuñiga - Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible (CCMSS), Rights and Resources
    Press Summary Press Summary
    Sustainable Forest Management as a Strategy to Combat Climate Change: Communities Show the Way
    David Bray, Deborah Barry, Sergio Madrid, Leticia Merino, Ivan Zuñiga - Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible (CCMSS), Rights and Resources
    Press Release Press Release
    New Study: Mexico’s Forest Communities Excel in Good Management, Outperform Other Strategies for Capturing Carbon to Slow Climate Change
    - Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible (CCMSS), Rights and Resources
    CIFOR Info Brief No.33: Rights to forests and carbon under REDD+ initiatives in Latin America

    CIFOR Info Brief No.33: Rights to forests and carbon under REDD+ initiatives in Latin America

    Anne M Larson, Esteve Corbera, Peter Cronkleton, Chris van Dam, David Bray, Manuel Estrada, Peter May, Gabriel Medina, Guillermo Navarro and Pablo Pacheco - CIFOR

     

    Rights to large areas of forest have been granted to communities and indigenous peoples in Latin America, offering these groups an opportunity to participate in REDD+ initiatives. However, tenure is not always secure, and security of tenure alone is insufficient to guarantee positive outcomes for both forests and livelihoods.

    DRC Scoping Mission

    DRC Scoping Mission

    Opportunities in the Current Forest and Land Tenure Landscape

    Paul De Wit - RRI

     

    DRC Scoping Mission: Opportunities in the Current Forest and Land Tenure Landscape

    Mission de Cadrage en RDC

    Mission de Cadrage en RDC

    Opportunités dans le contexte actuel de la foncière et forestière pour fiare progresser les droits de tenure communautaires

    Paul De Wit - RRI

     

    Mission de Cadrage en RDC: Opportunités dans le contexte actuel de la foncière et forestière pour fiare progresser les droits de tenure communautaires

    A Case Study on Large-Scale Forestland Acquisition in China

    A Case Study on Large-Scale Forestland Acquisition in China

    The Stora Enso Plantation Project in Hepu County, Guangxi Province

    Li Ping, Robin Nielsen - Rural Development Institute

     

    This study examines the case of one FDI made by Stora Enso with International Finance Corporation support in forestland plantations in Guangxi, China. Stora Enso is a company which explicitly adheres to CSR principles and committed to gaining Forest Stewardship Council certification by 2007. The study was prompted by prior field visits by Rural Development Institute (RDI) and Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) staff in April of 2006 which identified irregularities in the respect of local rights and the implementation of China’s land laws. RRI and RDI informed Stora Enso of these irregularities and risk of conflict at that time. In 2009 there were a series of conflicts between farmers and Stora Enso’s Chinese partners in Hepu of Guangxi over the compensation these farmers received for the land acquired by Stora Enso in 2009. This study was conducted between December 2009 and June 2010 by a team of legal experts from the Rural Development Institute, a highly respected international research organization on land rights with a strong history of research and advisory to legal reforms in China. The research method included fieldwork, interviews with government, village cadres, and village members, as well legal analysis of documents from communities, local governments and intermediaries. Stora Enso staff in Beijing and Guangxi were contacted in December 2009 to inform them of the study and request interviews and participation in the fieldwork. Unfortunately, Stora Enso staff in Beijing had one meeting with RDI and did not follow-up to supply information to RDI or RRI. They also chose to not be interviewed or participate in the field study.

     

     In brief, the study finds that despite Stora Enso’s good intentions as revealed by its establishment of the “Principles for Sustainable Wood and Fibre Procurement and Land Management” in March 2005 among other CSR principles, there are major limits to their legal due diligence. In effect, this is raising risks for local people to both their rights to land and livelihoods. Since weak governance and limited recognition of local land rights is more the norm than the exception in developing countries, the study points to the continued difficulty of meeting local laws, much less global standards, by foreign investors who hold a commitment to CSR.

     

    Contact Information:

    For more information or to request an interview, please contact:

    Coimbra Sirica: +1-301-943-3287 or csirica@burnesscommunications.com
    Michelle Geis: +1-301-280-5712 or mgeis@burnesscommunications.com

    Stora Enso has asked RRI to provide contact information for a company representative. Please write to Mr. Lauri Peltola for more information, Lauri.Peltola@storaenso.com.

     

     

    Associated Documents

    大规模获取中国林地的案例研究 大规模获取中国林地的案例研究
    斯道拉恩索在广西自治区合浦县的项目
    李平, 罗宾.尼尔逊 - Landesa
    Summary Report

    Summary Report

    Mesoamerican Regional Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change

    - Rights and Resources, CCAD, ACICAFOC, PRISMA

     

    This is the final report of the Mesoamerican Regional Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change which took place in San Salvador, El Salvador on 8 September 2010.

    Etude finale: Genre, droits et tenure dans la gestion décentralisée des ressources foncières et forestières au Mali

    Etude finale: Genre, droits et tenure dans la gestion décentralisée des ressources foncières et forestières au Mali

    Dr. Allassane Ba, Bintou Nimaga

     

    Final study on gender, rights and tenure dimensions in land and forest resources in Mali.

    Mapping Communities, Mapping Rights

    Mapping Communities, Mapping Rights

    Participatory Community Mapping as Rights Contestation in Cameroon

    René Oyono, Peter Mbile, Marina France, Solange Bandiaky - World Resources Institute, , Rights and Resources

     

    This article describes the importance of forest mapping to establishing the tenure rights of local Cameroonian communities.

    Diálogo Regional Mesoamericano con Seguimiento por Internet

    Diálogo Regional Mesoamericano con Seguimiento por Internet

    Programa preliminar

    - Rights and Resources, CCAD, ACICAFOC, PRISMA

     

    Programa preliminar por el Diálogo Regional Mesoamericano con Seguimiento por Internet “Bosques, Gobernanza y Cambio Climático.”

    How communities manage forests

    How communities manage forests

    Selected examples from around the world

    - Intercooperation, FORZA, Swiss Confederation

     

    This publication provides readers with an introduction to community forestry, taking eight country examples from Europe and Asia. In each example the legislation and organizational forms are described, and environmental, economical and social aspects discussed. The publication is intended for forestry students, forestry practitioners and policy makers, and interested members of the general public.

    Poverty, governance and conservation in the Gran Chaco of South America

    Poverty, governance and conservation in the Gran Chaco of South America

    Janis B. Alcorn, Alejo Zarzycki, Luis Maria de la Cruz - Rights and Resources, Fundación Yangareko, Fundación para la Gestión e Investigación Regional (FUNGIR)

     

    The Gran Chaco is the second largest ecosystem in the Plata basin of South America, after the Amazon rainforest. The high biological and cultural diversity offer diverse opportunities for conservation, despite development threatening both of them. The greatest concentration of biodiversity remain in areas of northern Argentina and southern Bolivia where levels of poverty are very high, and indigenous peoples and poor criollo cattle raisers coexist. By improving informed governance, it is possible to stabilize biodiversity levels and provide a basis for poor local people to collaborate, and to improve their situation in the face of threats from development. In this study we analyze the ongoing processes being applied in two Gran Chaco cases - from the Upper Parapeti Basin (upriver from Kaa Iya National Park) in Bolivia, and the Lower Pilcomayo in northern Argentina (a dynamic internal delta ecosystem where a tri-national biosphere reserve is being considered). Watershed management, when adapted to local ecological, cultural, social and political contexts, is shown to be an effective tactical strategy to activate moribund governmental institutions in response to local constituencies. In the two cases presented, NGO-facilitated processes enriched local people´s ability to take their own actions and to assess and frame their problems and goals for dialogue with their governments. The NGOs also offered technical assistance with land-use zoning, reforestation and alternative income-generation activities in collaborations that shifted government engagement. The methods used differ from the standard conservation and development projects, and their success offers lessons in building social network systems and civic science that improve conservation and reduce poverty. We close with a reflection on the framing of poverty alleviation and sustainability in conservation discourse.

    Conflict over forests and land in Asia

    Conflict over forests and land in Asia

    Impacts, causes, and management

    Yurdi Yasmi, Lisa Kelley, Thomas Enters - The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC)

     

    Conflict over forests and land in Asia is widespread. Competition for land for investment, resource extraction, and conservation is becoming more common, and with it, community–outsider conflict is believed to have increased in both number and severity. This conflict, which takes place between local actors (communities and indigenous peoples) and external actors (such as Government agencies and developers), has received considerable attention in the popular press but little analytical attention. Debates among scientists, practitioners, and governments on how to mitigate, manage, and transform this conflict have suffered accordingly. This Issues Paper aims to shed more light on how conflict begins; how it affects actors involved; and how it can be successfully managed.

     

    Associated Documents

    Conflict Biography Conflict Biography

    Lisa Kelley, Yurdi Yasmi - The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC)
    Forest Peoples Programme Press Release: Cameroon REDD Community Consultations and Civil Society Workshop

    Forest Peoples Programme Press Release: Cameroon REDD Community Consultations and Civil Society Workshop

    Louise Henson: - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    Baka, Bagyeli and Bakola forest people – together with their local support NGOs – have been conducting consultations in southern Cameroon to inform their communities about potential REDD projects. The Government of Cameroon is seeking funding from the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) to establish these projects which are intended to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD).

     

    Associated Documents

    The Situation of the Térraba Indigenous People of Costa Rica:

    The Situation of the Térraba Indigenous People of Costa Rica:

    A Request for Consideration under the Early Warning and Urgent Action Procedures of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

    - Forest Peoples Programme, Asociacion Cultural Indigena Teribe, Asociacion de Mujeres Orcuo dBon, Museo Comunitario, Movimiento de Juventud Naso Lokes, Enrique Rivera Rivera., Kus Kura S.C

     

    According to the most recent census, the Térraba people number approximately 750 persons. In 1956, they were granted title to part of their traditional territory. However, this title was amended and considerably reduced, without any form of notice or consultation, in 2004 by excising the General River, roads, land used by State services (e.g., schools), and water springs. This caused the fragmentation of the titled lands into a number of discrete blocks. At present, close to 90 percent of this titled area is illegally occupied by non-indigenous persons with the tacit or formal approval of the State. As discussed below, the Committee has expressed concern about this same situation on two prior occasions.

    Submission to the International Finance Coorporation

    Submission to the International Finance Coorporation

    Review of the Sustainability Policy, Disclosure Policy, and Performance Standards

    - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    The three year review of the International Finance Corporation’s (IFC) sustainability framework provides an important opportunity to reflect and incorporate revisions to strengthen the existing framework. While the framework did establish some steps towards greater accountability within IFC-funded activities, a number of improvements are needed to increase compliance and remedy several serious gaps and weaknesses in the IFC’s sustainability Framework.

    Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons

    Trade-offs and synergies between carbon storage and livelihood benefits from forest commons

    Ashwini Chhatre, Arun Agrawal - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of Michigan

     

    A synthesis of this paper was presented at the Asia Dialogue on Community Forests and Property Rights in the Context of Climate Change on 11 August 2010

    Forests and Climate Change after Copenhagen

    Forests and Climate Change after Copenhagen

    An Asia-Pacific Perspective

    - RECOFTC

     

    The 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was held 7-18 December 2009, in Copenhagen, Denmark. The spotlight fell on forests, forestry and REDD+ and although no legally binding agreement was reached, some significant outcomes were achieved. Following Copenhagen, forestry stakeholders in the Asia-Pacific have raised many questions about the meaning of COP 15 for people, forests, and forestry. In this context, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in collaboration with RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests, convened a meeting on 3 February 2010, in Bali, Indonesia. The meeting had two aims: 1. To discuss and answer questions that forest stakeholders have been asking following the COP15 negotiations. 2. To debate the key issues that foresters and forestry institutions will face in developing climate change policies and strategies. Twelve regional and international experts attended, along with 29 observers affiliated with the Responsible Asia Forestry and Trade Program’s REDD Learning Network. This report presents the experts’ answers to a dozen key questions.

    Vietnam: Why REDD+ Needs Local People

    Vietnam: Why REDD+ Needs Local People

    People Forest and Climate Change Mitigation

    - RECOFTC

     

    With much of Vietnam’s forest area already actively managed by local people, and given Vietnam’s early engagement in REDD+ readiness initiatives, the country is emerging as a global leader in community-led climate change mitigation in the forest sector. To do so, however, a number of critical issues still need to be addressed. Here we outline why the active engagement of local communities and indigenous peoples is so crucial, and what challenges still need to be overcome. We then summarize the critical actions required to ensure the future success of Vietnam’s REDD+ program.

     

    Associated Documents

    Việt Nam: Tại sao REDD + cần người dân địa phương Việt Nam: Tại sao REDD + cần người dân địa phương
    Con người, Rừng, và Giảm thiểu biến đổi khí hậu
    - RECOFTC
    Can you Imagine?

    Can you Imagine?

    Opening Remarks at Conference on Forest Tenure and Regulatory Reforms: Experiences, Lessons and Future Steps in Asia

    Andy White - Rights and Resources

     

    These are the opening remarks to participants at Conference on Forest Tenure and Regulatory Reforms: Experiences, Lessons and Future Steps in Asia. The remarks were given on 24 September 2010 in Beijing, China.

    REDD+ 2010

    REDD+ 2010

    Moving Forward for People and Forests

    - RECOFTC

     

    This briefing note REDD+ 2010: Moving Forward for People and Forests overviews progress made on REDD+ at the December 2009 Copenhagen climate talks. Designed to meet the needs of national stakeholders with a working knowledge of REDD, it continues to be shared with national-level networks and at our REDD workshops.

    MegaFlorestais 2010 Agenda

    MegaFlorestais 2010 Agenda

    - RRI

     

    The agenda for the 6th MegaFlorestais meeting, held 20-23 September, 2010.

    MegaFlorestais 2010 Agenda

    MegaFlorestais 2010 Agenda

    - RRI

     

    The agenda for the 6th MegaFlorestais meeting, held 20-23 September, 2010.

    Forests and Incomes in China

    Forests and Incomes in China

    Part I

    Eugenia Katsigris, Jintao Xu, Andy White, Xiaojun Yang, Weng Qian

     

    A report focusing on how forests in China currently benefit incomes, and, in particular, what the role of forests is for the incomes of the poor.

     

    Associated Documents

    Forests and Incomes in China Forests and Incomes in China
    Part II
    Eugenia Katsigris, Jintao Xu, Andy White, Xiaojun Yang, Weng Qian
    County-Level Charts County-Level Charts
    Annex 1
    Eugenia Katsigris, Jintao Xu, Andy White, Xiaojun Yang, Weng Qian
    Village-Level Charts Village-Level Charts
    Annex 2
    Eugenia Katsigris, Jintao Xu, Andy White, Xiaojun Yang, Weng Qian
    Scatter Charts of Income Scatter Charts of Income
    Annex 3
    Eugenia Katsigris, Jintao Xu, Andy White, Xiaojun Yang, Weng Qian
    Exhibits of Government Data Exhibits of Government Data
    Annex 4
    Eugenia Katsigris, Jintao Xu, Andy White, Xiaojun Yang, Weng Qian
    Forests and Incomes in China Forests and Incomes in China
    Summary Version
    Eugenia Katsigris, Jintao Xu, Andy White, Xiaojun Yang, Weng Quian
    Forests and Incomes in China Forests and Incomes in China
    Part III
    Eugenia Katsigris, Jintao Xu, Andy White, Xiaojun Yang, Weng Qian
    The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE) for Ghana

    The REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise (ROSE) for Ghana

    ROSE Expert Workshop Report

    Michael Richards - Forest Trends

     

    The Ghana REDD Opportunities Scoping Exerceis was one of three ROSE country case studies conducted in 2009. It has provided the Katoomba Incubator with a solid basis for strategic engagement with REDD+ in Ghana, both at the project or sub-national level, and at the national or policy level. The ROSE study consisted of two main stages; a two-day key informant or expert workshop, and an analysis of legal and policy constraints by a small in-country team. This report focuses on the first part of the ROSE methodology, the expert workshop; a second Ghana ROSE report, entitled “REDD Opportunities Scoping Exercise: Implications of the Legal and Policy Framework for Tree and Forest Carbon in Ghana”, goes into greater depth on the legal and policy issues surrounding the development of REDD+ in Ghana.

    Opening remarks to the 2010 RRI Asia Dialogue on Community Forests and Property Rights in the Context of Climate Change

    Opening remarks to the 2010 RRI Asia Dialogue on Community Forests and Property Rights in the Context of Climate Change

    H.E. Dr. Thomas Gass - Embassy of Switzerland and Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), Kathmandu, Nepal

     

    The opening remarks of the 2010 RRI Asia Dialogue on Community Forests and Property Rights in the Context of Climate Change were delivered by H.E. Dr Thmoas Gass, Ambassador of Switzerland to Nepal on 11 August 2010 in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Forest Peoples Programme Press Release: World Bank palm oil strategy is reckless, say NGOs

    Forest Peoples Programme Press Release: World Bank palm oil strategy is reckless, say NGOs

    Annabelle Galt - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    In advance of a major international meeting about World Bank investments in palm oil, a consortium of indigenous peoples’, oil palm smallholders’, and non-governmental organisations is demanding the World Bank maintains its current freeze on funding the sector until it has a credible strategy to address the sector’s manifold problems.

    Urgent action letter calling on the Government of India to respect the rights of the Dongria Kondh people

    Urgent action letter calling on the Government of India to respect the rights of the Dongria Kondh people

    Annabelle Galt - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    Forest Peoples Programme is deeply concerned for the Dongria kondh people whose lands and future are threatended by the plans Vedanta Resources and the Orissa Government to mine thier sacred mountain for bauxite.

    Comments from Indigenous Peoples, Smallholders and NGOs on the consultation draft, ‘World Bank Group’s Framework for Engagement in the Palm Oil Sector’

    Comments from Indigenous Peoples, Smallholders and NGOs on the consultation draft, ‘World Bank Group’s Framework for Engagement in the Palm Oil Sector’

    - Forest Peoples Programme, Sawit Watch

     

    It is our view that the weaknesses and omissions of the current draft are so great that it must be substantially revised to address these matters in detail and to develop a comprehensive strategy to guide WBG involvement in the palm oil sector. There will then need to be further consultations to ascertain if the revised draft is adequate. In the meantime, the moratorium on WBG funding of the sector should be retained.

     

    Associated Documents

    Statement to the Third session of the UN Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    Statement to the Third session of the UN Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

    Presentation under Agenda Item 4

    - Indigenous Peoples Links, Forest Peoples Programme, Asian Indigenous Peoples Pact, Foundation for Aboriginal and Islander Research Action, Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Organizacions de Naciones y Pueblos Indigenas en Argentina, Middlesex University Department of Law.

     

    This intervention will focus on the implementation of the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, specifically on the responsibilities of specialized agencies of the UN under Articles 41 and 42 of the Declaration. These articles require that specialized agencies actively contribute to the realization of the Declaration, through financial support, technical assistance and promotion of the Declaration. Importantly, Article 41 of the Declaration also draws specific attention to the issue of participation, stating that “[w]ays and means of ensuring participation of indigenous peoples on issues affecting them shall be established.”

    The emergence of the REDD Hydra

    The emergence of the REDD Hydra

    An analysis of the REDD-related discussions and developments in the June session of the UNFCCC and beyond

    Francesco Martone - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    A new round of UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) talks and meetings of the AWG-LCA (Ad Hoc Working Group on Long Term Cooperative Action) and the AWG-KP (Ad Hoc Working Group on the Kyoto Protocol), as well as of the two subsidiary bodies SBSTA (Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technological Advise) and SBI (Subsidiary Body on implementation) took place in Bonn, from May 31-June 10, 2010. In general terms, while progress on some aspects has been registered, the key outstanding issue, i.e. the way C02 emissions reduction will be achieved and ensured still represents the main obstacle to a final deal in Cancun. Annex 1 countries have repeatedly tried to undermine the Kyoto protocol, watering down binding rules and obligations to reduce their emissions, and rather push for a “pledge and review” approach that extends the burden to reduce and mitigate emissions to developing countries. Annex I countries have insisted in pushing for a “merger” of the two negotiation tracks (notably AWG-LCA and AWG-KP) and for the inclusion of key elements of the controversial Copenhagen Accord into the new text for negotiation at the AWG-LCA.

     

    Associated Documents

    L’émergence de l’hydre REDD L’émergence de l’hydre REDD
    Une analyse des discussions et progrès concernant le mécanisme REDD lors de la séance de juin de la CCNUCC et au-delà
    Francesco Martone - Forest Peoples Programme
    La Emersión de la hidra REDD La Emersión de la hidra REDD
    Un análisis de los debates y acontecimientos sobre a REDD+ en la sesión de Bonn de la CMNUCC y no solo
    Francesco Martone - Forest Peoples Programme
    Securing Community Rights in Climate and Forest Protection Programmes in the Central African Republic

    Securing Community Rights in Climate and Forest Protection Programmes in the Central African Republic

    Olivia Woodburne, John Nelson - Forest Peoples Preogramme

     

    The Congo basin contains the second largest rainforest in the world and has become a target for a developing set of policies that seek to fight climate change by reducing deforestation and forest degradation, best known under its acronym ‘REDD.’ The basic idea of REDD is to compensate nations who manage forests well and protect their forests from degradation, with the goal of preserving the carbon stored within them. It is argued that this approach could be a relatively costeffective way of tackling climate change,1 and a number of REDD projects are being developed in the Central African Republic targeted particularly to the 3.8 million hectares of dense forest in the south-west region. These forests are home to many local and indigenous communities who rely upon forest hunting and gathering, agriculture, fishing and livestock raising. Forest hunting and gathering are the primary economic activities of indigenous BaAka communities whose customary territories overlap most of the remaining forest in the southern forest zone. Since 1988 an integrated conservation and development project has been operating in the south-west tip of the Central African Republic (CAR) called the Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area Complex (DPAC). New REDD pilot interventions linked to carbon trading have already been proposed by NGOs like WWF to help protect these forests.2 Most local and indigenous people living in the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve remain unaware of these REDD proposals that will affect how their forests are managed in the future. There is a need to inform indigenous peoples and forest-dependent communities about REDD as soon as possible so that they can assert their rights in line with international standards. This briefing highlights some key issues that need to be addressed to ensure REDD planning is sustainable and is done in a way that respects human rights.

     

    Associated Documents

    Fifth RRI Dialogue

    Fifth RRI Dialogue

    on Forests Governance and Climate Change

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    Brief agenda synopsis and list of presenting organizations.

    Vietnam

    Vietnam

    Why REDD+ Needs Local People

    - The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC)

     

    This briefing paper outlines why the active engagement of local communities and indigenous peoples is so crucial, and what challenges in the REDD+ processes still need to be overcome. A summary of the critical actions required to ensure the future success of Vietnam’s REDD+ program is also included.

     

    Associated Documents

    Việt Nam Việt Nam
    Tại sao REDD + cần người dân địa phương
    - The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC)
    Strategies for Integrated Watershed Management, Environmental Restoration and Sustainable Development in Haiti

    Strategies for Integrated Watershed Management, Environmental Restoration and Sustainable Development in Haiti

    Conference Purpose and Concept Note

    - RRI, Office of Prime Minister of Haiti, Office of the Special Envoy for Haiti, Forest Trends

     

    This is the English Purpose and Concept Note for the Strategies for Integrated Watershed Management, Environmental Restoration and Sustainable Development in Haiti Conference, 16 - 17 June 2010.

    Politique et stratégies de gestion intégrée des bassins‐versants Restauration de l’environnement et développement durable

    Politique et stratégies de gestion intégrée des bassins‐versants Restauration de l’environnement et développement durable

    Ordre du Jour

    - RRI, Office of Prime Minister of Haiti, UN Office of the Special Envoy for Haiti, Forest Trends

     

    Ordre du Jour pour le colloque « Politique et stratégies de gestion intégrée des bassins-versants: Restauration de l’environnement et développement durable » - 16 - 17 juin 2010.

    Does the Opportunity Cost Approach Indicate the Real Cost of REDD+ ?

    Does the Opportunity Cost Approach Indicate the Real Cost of REDD+ ?

    Rights and Realities of Paying for REDD+

    Hans Gregersen, Hosny El Lakany, Alain Karsenty, Andy White - Rights and Resources

     

    The focus of this paper is that the contextual issues influencing the adequacy and appropriateness of opportunity cost as a proxy for payments required to get successful REDD+ can be major ones in most tropical developing countries; and resolving them can be expensive and time consuming.

     

    Associated Documents

    Does the Opportunity Cost Approach Indicate the Real Cost of REDD+? Does the Opportunity Cost Approach Indicate the Real Cost of REDD+?
    Rights and Realities of Paying for REDD+
    Hans Gregersen, Hosny El Lakany, Alain Karsenty, Andy White - Rights and Resources, CIRAD
    Realising Rights, Protecting Forests: An alternative vision for reducing deforestation

    Realising Rights, Protecting Forests: An alternative vision for reducing deforestation

    - Accra Caucus on Forests and Climate Change

     

    In this report the Caucus proposes an alternative vision for achieving the objective of reducing deforestation, arguing for policies and actions that would tackle the drivers of deforestation, rather than focusing exclusively on carbon. Drawing on case studies from organisations with experience of working with forest communities, the report highlights problems linked to the implementation of REDD and suggests ways in which policies to reduce deforestation can actually work on the ground. Through case studies from selected countries the report highlights three critical components: full and effective participation (Indonesia, Ecuador, Democratic Republic of Congo); secured and equitable land rights (Brazil, Cameroon, Papua New Guinea) and community-based forest management (Tanzania, Nepal).

     

    Associated Documents

    Respecter les droits, protéger les forêts: une vision alternative pour réduire la déforestation Respecter les droits, protéger les forêts: une vision alternative pour réduire la déforestation

    - Le Caucus d’Accra pour les forêts et le changement climatique
    Securing Tenure Rights and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)

    Securing Tenure Rights and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)

    Costs and Lessons Learned

    Jeffrey Hatcher - World Bank, Rights and Resources

     

    This Social Development Working Paper attempts to contribute to the discussion of scaling-up the recognition of tenure rights within the efforts to reduce forest carbon emissions and to put the costs of recognizing tenure rights in a broader perspective. It is organized into three sections: first, an examination of the role of tenure in reducing forest carbon emissions and enhancing carbon sequestration capacities; second, an overview of lessons learned from legally recognizing customary tenure rights, and; third, an analysis of the costs of recognizing tenure and the projected costs of an international REDD scheme.

    RRI Workshop on Systems of Standards, Safeguards, and Recourse Mechanisms for Forests and Climate

    RRI Workshop on Systems of Standards, Safeguards, and Recourse Mechanisms for Forests and Climate

    Agenda

    - Rights and Resources

     

    This is the agenda for the RRI Workshop on Systems of Standards, Safeguards, and Recourse Mechanisms for Forests and Climate held 12 May 2010 in Washington, DC, USA.

    Alternative Property and Small and Medium Forest Enterprise Models to Promote Economic Growth Benefiting the Poor in Central and West Africa

    Alternative Property and Small and Medium Forest Enterprise Models to Promote Economic Growth Benefiting the Poor in Central and West Africa

    Case of the "Moringa Growers Cooperative" (Rwanda)

    Cleto Ndikumagenge, Marie Jose Bigendako, Diomede Manirakiza, Thadee Habiyambere, Chantal Wandja - IUCN

     

    This brief focuses on the "Moringa Growers' Cooperative" in the context of Rwanda's legislation and SMFEs.

    Forests and climate change after Copenhagen

    Forests and climate change after Copenhagen

    An Asia-Pacific perspective

    - The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC), FAO

     

    In this context, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, in collaboration with RECOFTC – The Center for People and Forests, convened a meeting on 3 February 2010, in Bali, Indonesia. The meeting had two aims: 1. To discuss and answer questions that forest stakeholders have been asking following the COP15 negotiations. 2. To debate the key issues that foresters and forestry institutions will face in developing climate change policies and strategies. Twelve regional and international experts attended, along with 29 observers affiliated with the Responsible Asia Forestry and Trade Program’s REDD Learning Network. This report presents the experts’ answers to a dozen key questions.

    FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign

    FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign

    Day 1 Update (4 April 2010)

    - FECOFUN

     

    This is the first update from FECOFUN's April 2010 community forestry rights campaign.

     

    Associated Documents

    FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign
    Day 2 Update (5 April 2010)
    - FECOFUN
    FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign
    Day 4 Update (7 April 2010)
    - FECOFUN
    FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign
    Day 5 Update (8 April 2010)
    - FECOFUN
    FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign FECOFUN Forest Caravan 2010 campaign
    Day 7 Update (10 April 2010)
    - FECOFUN
    Taking stock of Copenhagen

    Taking stock of Copenhagen

    outcomes on REDD+ and rights

    Francesco Martone - FPP

     

    Forest Peoples Programme has produced this information note at the request of some Indigenous Peoples’ Organizations to provide some background and analysis of the outcomes of REDD negotiations in Copenhagen, and to suggest options for further action.

    Marcus Colchester's introduction to RRI's 4th Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change

    Marcus Colchester's introduction to RRI's 4th Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change

    Marcus Colchester - FPP, Rights and Resources

     

    These are the opening remarks delivered by Marchus Colchester, FPP Director, at RRI's 4th Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change, Stationer's Hall, London, 6th April 2010.

    Does REDD+ Threaten to Recentralize Forest Governance?

    Does REDD+ Threaten to Recentralize Forest Governance?

    Jacob Phelps, Edward L. Webb, Arun Agrawal - University of Singapore, University of Michigan

     

    This briefing paper highlights the possibility for REDD to interrupt the promising trend toward decentralized forest management.

    Who Owns Carbon in Rural China?

    Who Owns Carbon in Rural China?

    An Analysis of the Legal Regime and Practices with Preliminary Policy Recommendations

    Zhu Keliang, Darryl Vhugen, Nathan Hilgendorf - Rural Development Institute, Rights and Resources

     

    To ensure the long-term success of China's carbon sequestration programs while addressing welfare of the affected rural poor, it is essential for China to continue its reform efforts on several fronts. Most importantly, the security of farmers’ rights over forestland and trees should be bolstered and adequate compensatory regimes established for farmers affected by carbon sequestration programs. This report covers these topics in depth.

    REDD+ 2010

    REDD+ 2010

    Moving Forward for People and Forests

    - The Center for People and Forests (RECOFTC)

     

    The COP15 climate conference in Copenhagen saw continuing negotiation on the shape of a potential REDD+ mechanism, and further clarifications on the draft agreement text. This summary provides an overview of the major developments and their implications for stakeholders.

     

    Associated Documents

    REDD+ 2010 REDD+ 2010
    Melangkah Maju Untuk Masyarakat dan Hutan
    - RECOFTC
    Realising REDD+

    Realising REDD+

    National strategy and policy options

    Arild Angelsen , Maria Brockhaus, Erin Sills, William D. Sunderlin, Sheila Wertz-Kanounnikoff - CIFOR

     

    This book draws lessons from research and experience to inform national REDD+ strategies and policies. Our audience is those who are developing strategies and formulating and implementing national level policies and demonstration activities at all levels. The book should also provide a useful reality check to those working to design the global REDD+ architecture.

    ITTO Tropical Forest Update - Volume 19, No 2

    ITTO Tropical Forest Update - Volume 19, No 2

    Owning Africa's forests

    Alastair Sarre, Eduardo Mansur, Steve Johnson - ITTO

     

    In May 2009, ITTO, the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), and the Cameroon Government combined to host, in Yaoundé, Cameroon, the International Conference on Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: New Opportunities for Central and West Africa. The aim was to catalyze new, wide-ranging actions by governments and civil-society organizations towards securing land and forest tenure in Central and West Africa. This special edition of the tfu reports on the conference: its key messages, discussions, conclusions, and recommendations. All conference presentations and working-group notes are available at www.rightsandresources.org.

    The End of the Hinterland

    The End of the Hinterland

    Forests, Conflict and Climate Change

    Rights and Resources Group Staff, Liz Alden Wily, David Rhodes, Madhu Sarin, Mina Setra, Phil Shearman, - Also available in Spanish, French and Indonesia Bahasa. - Rights and Resources, The Centre for People and Forests, Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre

     

    Forests have long been a hinterland: remote, “backward” areas largely controlled by external, often urban, actors and seen to be of little use to national development or the world except as a supply of low-valued natural resources. 2009 marks the beginning of the end of this era: Forest lands are booming in value for the production of food, fuel, fiber and now carbon. New global satellite and communications technology allow the world to peer into, assess the value of, and potentially control forests from anywhere in the world. More than ever, forests are bargaining chips in global climate negotiations and markets. This unprecedented exposure and pressure, and risk to local people and their forests, is being met by unprecedented levels of local organization and political influence, providing nations and the world at large tremendous opportunity to right historic wrongs, advance rural development and save forests. But the chaos in Copenhagen at COP15 laid bare the looming crises that the world will face if the longer-term trends of ignored rights, hunger, and climate change remain inadequately addressed in 2010. While the era of the hinterland is ending, the future of forest areas is not yet clear. There will be unparalleled national and global attention and investment in forests in 2010—but who will drive the agenda and who will make the decisions? Will forest areas remain controlled from beyond? On whose terms will the hinterland be integrated into global markets and politics? This report takes stock of the current status of forest rights and tenure globally, assesses the key issues and trends of 2009, and identifies key questions and challenges that we will face in 2010.

     

    Associated Documents

    El Final de las Tierras Baldías El Final de las Tierras Baldías
    Bosques, conflictos y cambio climático
    Rights and Resources Group Staff, Liz Alden Wily, David Rhodes, Mina Setra, Phil Shearman - Rights and Resources, The Centre for People and Forests, Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre
    La Fin de l'Hinterland La Fin de l'Hinterland
    Forêts, Conflit et Changement Climatique
    Rights and Resources Group Staff, Liz Alden Wily, David Rhodes, Madhu Sarin, Mina Setra, Phil Shearman - Rights and Resources, The Center for People and Forests, Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre
    Berakhirnya Daerah Pedalaman Berakhirnya Daerah Pedalaman
    Hutan, Sengketa, dan Perubahan Iklim
    Rights and Resources Group Staff, Liz Alden Wily, David Rhodes, Madhu Sarin, Mina Setra, Phil Shearman - Rights and Resources, The Center for People and Forests, Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre
    An Assessment of Liberian Forest Area, Dynamics, FDA Concession Plans, and their Relevance to Revenue Projections

    An Assessment of Liberian Forest Area, Dynamics, FDA Concession Plans, and their Relevance to Revenue Projections

    A report commissioned by Green Advocates, Monrovia, Liberia

    P. L. Shearman - Remote Sensing Centre, Univeristy of Papua New Guinea, Green Advocates, Rights and Resources

     

    This report provides an overview of the history of overestimation of extractable timber volumes and forest areas and its implications for the management of the Liberian forestry sector.

    Rethinking Forest Regulations

    Rethinking Forest Regulations

    From simple rules to systems to promote best practices and compliance

    Hans Gregersen, Arnoldo Contreras - Rights and Resources

     

    This paper returns to the particular issue of regulatory frameworks: the rules and systems put in place to encourage best practice and compliance with the official rules. It argues that in many countries the regulatory framework needs to be rethought, and rethought on the basis of today’s political, social and market contexts; recognizing that today’s world is much different than when the forest regulations were designed decades, or in some cases, centuries before. Fortunately, there are examples of redesigned, and successful regulatory approaches that are combined with incentives and partnering approaches to create coherent systems for guiding and controlling forest activity. We can learn a lot from looking at the experiences gained with these systems.

    China’s Forest Tenure Reforms

    China’s Forest Tenure Reforms

    Impacts and implications for choice, conservation, and climate change

    Jintao Xu, Andy White, Uma Lele - Peking University, Rights and Resources

     

    Global concern with climate change has brought new focus to the problem of unclear land tenure both as a driver of deforestation and a prerequisite for effective forest protection and restoration. In this report, China’s recent forest land reforms provide a valuable case study for this global challenge. The reforms have increased forestry’s contribution to household income and reforestation. As such, they have improved China’s ability to mitigate and adapt to climate change. More reforms are necessary to establish adequate protection for household and community land rights and the regulation of the emerging land market.

     

    Associated Documents

    China’s Forest Land Tenure Reforms: Impacts and Implications for Choice, Conservation and Climate Change China’s Forest Land Tenure Reforms: Impacts and Implications for Choice, Conservation and Climate Change
    Brief
    Jintao Xu, Andy White, Uma Lele - Peking University, Rights and Resources
    Fodder for War

    Fodder for War

    Getting to the Crux of the Natural Resources Crisis

    Liz Alden Wily - Rights and Resources

     

    As the world's governments and international enterprise become increasingly interested in land acquisition for food production, the importance of legal customary tenure recognition becomes more apparent. This presentation was given to a Public Meeting at the Overseas Development Institute, London, 26 November 2009, to launch Uncharted Territory: Land, Conflict and Humanitarian Action, ed. Sara Pantuliano, Practical Action Publishing, 2009.

    Recognizing Rights to Natural Resources in Mozambique

    Recognizing Rights to Natural Resources in Mozambique

    Brief for the Rights and Resources Initiative

    Paul De Wit, Simon Norfolk

     

    This report analyzes the current state of legal recognition of natural resource rights under current land and forestry legislation in Mozambique.

     

    Associated Documents

    Reconhecer Direitos sobre os Recursos Naturais em Moçambique Reconhecer Direitos sobre os Recursos Naturais em Moçambique
    Documento de trabalho para Rights and Resources Initiative
    Paul De Wit, Simon Norfolk
    Capitalism Meets Common Property

    Capitalism Meets Common Property

    David Barton Bray

     

    In the remote mountain forests of Oaxaca, Mexican Zapotec communities have combined ancestral styles of decision making with modern, eco-conscious forest management.

    From Needs to Rights

    From Needs to Rights

    Lessons learned from the application of rights based approaches to natural resource governance in Ghana, Uganda and Nepal

    Tom Blomley, Phil Franks, Maksha Ram Maharjan - CARE Danmark, FECOFUN, Forest Watch Ghana, Rights and Resources

     

    This paper provides a retrospective review of a new RBA-centred approach that has been applied in practice, particularly in three countries: namely Uganda, Ghana and Nepal. In contrast to many international NGOs working with RBA, CARE has chosen to focus on the application of procedural rights—rather than a more confrontational approach to the adoption of substantive rights. An approach that promotes procedural rights is seen as a useful entry point to issues of power, governance and equity, within the broader framework of sustainable natural resources management.

    What the (carbon) market cannot do...

    What the (carbon) market cannot do...

    Perspective: Issue No. 1

    Alain Karsenty - CIRAD

     

    This is the first issue of CIRAD's new publication - Perspective.

     

    Associated Documents

    Ce que le marché (carbone) ne peut faire... Ce que le marché (carbone) ne peut faire...
    Perspective: Issue No 1
    Alain Karsenty - CIRAD
    Key Recommendations of State Level Consultation on Forest Rights Act

    Key Recommendations of State Level Consultation on Forest Rights Act

    Community Forest Rights: Scope, Challenges & Prospects

    - VASUNDHARA

     

    This document summarizes the key recommendations which emerged from a State Level Workshop on Forest Rights Act with a specific focus on the recognition of community forest rights, organized by Vasundhara at DRTC, Bhubaneswar, India from 1st to 3rd September 2009.

    Redressing ‘historical injustice’ through the Indian Forest Rights Act 2006

    Redressing ‘historical injustice’ through the Indian Forest Rights Act 2006

    A Historical Institutional analysis of contemporary forest rights reform

    Oliver Springate-Baginski, Madhu Sarin, Soumitra Ghosh, Purnamita Dasgupta, Indranil Bose, Ajit Banerjee, Kailas Sarap, Pradeep Misra, Sricharan Behera, M. Gopinath Reddy, P.Trinadh Rao - Reserach Programme Consortium for Improving Institutions for Pro-Poor Growth, School of Environment & Development University of Manchester

     

    The issue of forest rights in India is a major concern by any measure. It affects forested landscapes that cover over 23% of the country, and the livelihoods of perhaps 200 million citizens, as many as 20% of the population in a democratic polity. Forest landscape dwelling populations, located mainly in a tribal belt across central and eastern areas of the country, are amongst the poorest of the poor. Their poverty reflects a history of institutionalised disenfranchisement; having their customary forest land expropriated, and use rights negated by feudal states, by the colonial state and subsequently by the independent Indian government. The issue of forest rights has been highly contentious for at least a century and a half, and has intensified in recent years. This paper analyses the historical origins of forest rights deprivation and contemporary processes through which local people are seeking to restore their forest rights, taking the case of the Indian Forest Rights Act 2006 (FRA hereafter) as an example to illustrate wider issues in historical institutional theory. The paper explores how the colonial state’s decision to ‘territorialise’ forest landscapes in 1864 through formation of the Imperial Forestry Service represented a critical juncture establishing institutional structures depriving forest people of their customary rights which have shown remarkable persistent ‘path dependency’ despite 50 years of Independence, until the present time. Although the FRA appears to be a fundamental reform, indeed perhaps a new ‘critical juncture’ in the relationship between forest peoples and the state - the depth and durability of this reform remains uncertain, due primarily to the ‘path dependent’ behaviour of the powerful existing state forest bureaucracies, which remain a major obstacle to realising the pro-poor potentials.

    International Conference on Community Rights, Forests and Climate Change

    International Conference on Community Rights, Forests and Climate Change

    Final Report

    - Teri, Rights and Resources, Defra

     

    This Final Report presents the key messages, points and recommendations from the International Conference on Community Rights, Forests and Climate Change which was held in New Delhi, India from 17-18 August 2009.

    The World Bank’s Forest Investment  Programme (FIP): core elements and critical issues

    The World Bank’s Forest Investment Programme (FIP): core elements and critical issues

    Rights, forests and climate briefing series – October 2009

    - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    This analytical brief focuses on the future structure and operation of the Forest Investment Programme (FIP).

    Indonesia: indigenous peoples and the Kampar Peninsula

    Indonesia: indigenous peoples and the Kampar Peninsula

    Rights, forests and climate briefing series – October 2009

    - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    This analytical brief focuses on land-use plans concerning indigenous lands of the Kampar Peninsula.

    Moving the goal posts?  Accountability failures of the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)

    Moving the goal posts? Accountability failures of the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)

    Rights, forests and climate briefing series – October 2009

    - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    This analytical brief focuses on accountability issues relating to the World Bank's Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF).

    Forests, landscapes and governance

    Forests, landscapes and governance

    multiple actors, multiple roles

    Jane Carter, Kaspar Schmidt, Patrick Robinson, Thomas Stadtmüller, Arjumand Nizami - Intercooperation

     

    This report comes out of a series of meetings organized by Intercooperation and Helvetas on Forests, Landscapes and Governance. It brings together the views and experiences of practitioners working in many different countries.

    Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies in Nepal’s Forest Sector: How Can Rural Communities Benefit?

    Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies in Nepal’s Forest Sector: How Can Rural Communities Benefit?

    NSCFP Discussion Paper No. 7

    Dr. Bharat K. Pokharel, Sarah Byrne - Intercooperation

     

    This paper outlines options for rural communities to participate in climate change mitigation and adaptation activities in the forest sector in Nepal. It looks at the various institutional barriers that would need to be overcome, as well as the existing institutional opportunities, particularly in relation to tenure rights.

    Rights Contestations through Community Mapping in Cameroon

    Rights Contestations through Community Mapping in Cameroon

    Peter Mbile - ICRAF

     

    A look at the role and types of community mapping in the analysis of community rights in Cameroon.

     

    Associated Documents

    Conflits de Droits et Cartographie Communautaire au Cameroun Conflits de Droits et Cartographie Communautaire au Cameroun

    Peter Mbile - World Agroforestry Centre, Rights and Resources
    Customary Practices and Forest Tenure Reforms in Africa - Status, Issues and Lessons

    Customary Practices and Forest Tenure Reforms in Africa - Status, Issues and Lessons

    Edmund Barrow, Kamugisha-Ruhombe Jones, Isilda Nhantumbo, Rene Oyono, Moumini Savadogo - IUCN

     

    Lessons and findings regarding customary practices and Africa's forest tenure reform process

    Forest News N°001

    Forest News N°001

    Monthly Information Bulletin of the Forest Conservation Programme (FCP) of the Central and West Africa Regional programme of The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN-PACO)

    - IUCN

     

    This is the inaugural newsletter from the the Forest Conservation Programme (FCP) of the Central and West Africa Regional programme of The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN-PACO). The newsletter will serve as a regional dialogue tool focused on forestry activity.

    International Forestry Review

    International Forestry Review

    Special Edition: Equity in Community Forestry - Insights from the North and South.

    Jeff Campbell, K. Schreckenberg, C.M. Danks, A. Diop, R. Fraser, D. Brighton, M.H. McDermott, C. Luttrell, V.G. Vyamana, M.R. Maharjan, R. Ram Dakal, Suresh K. Thapa, S. Maanty, J. Guernier, Y. Yasmi, A. Lawrence, B. Anglezarke, B. Frost, P. Nolan, R. Owen - Commonwealth Forestry Association, DfiD, RECOFTC - The Center for People and Forests

     

    This is a Special Issue of the International Forestry Review focusing on Equity in Community Forestry - Insights from the North and South.

    Allanblackia

    Allanblackia

    July 2009

    - World Agroforestry Centre - West and Central Africa Region

     

    World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)- Bilingual Monthly Newsletter- ICRAF/West and Central Africa Region, July 2009 Edition

    infoACICAFOC

    infoACICAFOC

    July 2009, Issue No 1

    - ACICAFOC

     

    This is the inaugural news bulletin from the Coordinating Association of Indigenous and Community Agroforestry in Central America (ACICOFOC).

    Who Owns the Forests of Asia?

    Who Owns the Forests of Asia?

    An introduction to the forest tenure transition in Asia, 2002-2008

    - Rights and Resources

     

    In recent decades there has been a shift away from government control of forest land towards increasing access and ownership for indigenous groups, communities, individuals, and firms. This brief highlights this transition in statutory forest tenure from 2002-2008 in Asia. The brief focuses on forest land tenure, but tenure over other forest resources (timber, non-timber forest products, carbon, sub-soil mineral ores, etc.) is often just as important. Moreover, although the focus is only on tenure in this analysis, the regulatory framework is also critically important because it specifies the rules regarding land use and who gets access to what resources.

     

    Associated Documents

    Siapa pemilik hutan di Asia? Siapa pemilik hutan di Asia?
    Sebuah pendahuluan menuju transisi penguasaan hutan di Asia, 2002-2008
    - Rights and Resources
    ¿Podemos ser autónomos?

    ¿Podemos ser autónomos?

    Pueblos indígenas vs. Estado en Latinoamérica

    Pablo Ortiz-T., Alberto Chirif - Indigenous Territories and Governance Programme

     

    ¿Podemos ser autónomos? Pueblos indígenas vs. Estado en Latinoamérica reúne dos documentos: el primero, “Dilemas y desafíos de la autonomía territorial indígena en Latinoamérica” de Pablo Ortiz hace un balance de los procesos de autonomía indígena en la región a partir de cinco de los casos más significativos (Panamá, Nicaragua, Colombia, Ecuador y Bolivia); en el segundo, “Situación y amenazas actuales contra los indígenas amazónicos - El caso del Perú”, Chirif analiza la problemática de su país y la coyuntura reciente, que desemboca en Bagua.

    Alternative Tenure and Enterprises in Ghana

    Alternative Tenure and Enterprises in Ghana

    Gene Birikorang, Kwesi Bedu Mensah, Yaw Poku, Mercy Owusu Ansah - Hamilton Resources and Consulting

     

    The present Ghana context study is part of a larger body of research on alternative tenure and enterprise models (ATEMs) for Central and West Africa which includes case studies from seven countries and two country context studies. As such, it provides a broader context for the individual case studies, as it analyzes the current status of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) at national level and considers their opportunities in domestic as well as regional or international markets.

    The Gambia: Alternative Tenure and Enterprise Models

    The Gambia: Alternative Tenure and Enterprise Models

    Brief

    Kanimang Camara - National Consultancy on Extension Services and Training

     

    The present Gambia context study brief is part of a larger body of research on alternative tenure and enterprise models (ATEMs) for Central and West Africa which includes case studies from seven countries and two country context studies. As such, it provides a broader context for the individual case studies, as it analyzes the current status of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) at national level and considers their opportunities in domestic as well as regional or international markets.

    Payments for Environmental Services and Poverty Reduction

    Payments for Environmental Services and Poverty Reduction

    Risks and Opportunities

    Erica Lee and Sango Mahanty - RECOFTC

     

    This paper analyzes the linkages between PES, forests, and poverty, defining poverty not only in terms of deprivation and livelihood flows, but also in terms of social and political marginalization, as well as vulnerability to social and environmental risk. Emerging evidence on how PES impacts the livelihoods of the rural poor suggests that livelihoods are not just about securing financial assets but also human, social, and physical assets. Blindness to social welfare could fuel the risk of adverse social outcomes, and could mean foregoing opportunities to improve the circumstances of the rural poor.

    Guatemala: Etudes des Cas sur les Modèles Alternatives de Propriété Foncière et Entreprises Forestières

    Guatemala: Etudes des Cas sur les Modèles Alternatives de Propriété Foncière et Entreprises Forestières

    Patrice Pa'ah, Marike Michel - CAFT, AGFC

     

    Une étude sur l'appui institutionnel sur la foresterie communautaire au Guatemala.

    Seeing ‘REDD’?: Forests, climate change mitigation and the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities

    Seeing ‘REDD’?: Forests, climate change mitigation and the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities

    Updated Version

    Tom Griffiths, Francesco Martone - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    Governments will decide by the end of 2009 how developing country forests will be included in global efforts to mitigate climate change as part of a new post-2012 climate regime. Current negotiations seek consensus on the most effective methods and incentives for ‘reducing emissions from deforestation and for degradation’ (REDD), under which Northern countries would pay Southern countries for forestry practices within their national borders. One proposal is to give them aid money for the purpose. Another is for Southern countries to sell the carbon locked up in their forests to the North to allow Northern industries to continue polluting as usual under a global system of carbon trading. Other proposals recommend a combined public fund and market approach. In parallel with the global climate negotiations, agencies like the World Bank and UN as well as donors like Norway have established a series of large international forest and climate initiatives to support governments to design REDD strategies and implement ‘demonstration’ activities. Donors are under pressure to generate early results and developing country governments are scrambling to secure REDD funds. At the same time, there is a rapid proliferation of voluntary REDD initiatives run by conservation NGOs, local governments and carbon finance companies seeking to make profits out of carbon in standing tropical forests.

    Tropical Forest Tenure Assessment

    Tropical Forest Tenure Assessment

    Trends, Challenges and Opportunities

    - Rights and Resources, International Tropical Timber Organization

     

    The goal of this report is to present and analyze the state of forest tenure in much of the world’s tropical forests. Secure forest tenure is not only important for climate change mitigation – it is a basic building block of economic growth, social cohesion, personal well-being and environmental protection. While this report highlights evolutions in the geographical extent of forest ownership distribution, it also identifies some of the main challenges to the highly qualitative concept of tenure security and points out several opportunities to capitalize on recent transitions to widen the reach of local community tenure and to deepen the exercise of tenure rights.

     

    Associated Documents

    Alternative Tenure and Enterprise Models in Ghana

    Alternative Tenure and Enterprise Models in Ghana

    A Country-Level Study

    - Hamilton Resources and Consulting, Accra, Rights and Resources

     

    This research reflects new Terms of Reference (case study and country context protocols) for analyzing the alternate tenure and enterprise models in CWA building on the background analyses and on work that Civil have developed on recognition of alternate tenure rights and civil society institutions. Based on this background work and African policy maker and civil society requests, a detailed work program has been developed to identify and promote alternative tenure and enterprise model (ATEM) alternatives to African livelihoods, economies, and the environment, and engage policy makers and civil society in advancing such pro-poor and rights-based models.

    Alternative Tenure and Enterprise Models in Ghana

    Alternative Tenure and Enterprise Models in Ghana

    Brief

    Kwesi Bedu Mensah, Yaw Poku, Mercy Owusu Ansah, Gene Birikorang - Hamilton Resources and Consulting

     

    This Ghana context study brief is part of a larger body of research on alternative tenure and enterprise models (ATEMs) for Central and West Africa which includes case studies from seven countries and two country context studies. As such, it provides a broader context for the individual case studies, as it analyzes the current status of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) at national level and considers their opportunities in domestic as well as regional or international markets.

    Pit-Sawing Operations in River Cess County, Liberia: Promising Models for Small-Scale Forest Enterprises

    Pit-Sawing Operations in River Cess County, Liberia: Promising Models for Small-Scale Forest Enterprises

    Frances K. Colee - Green Advocates

     

    This Liberia context study brief is part of a larger body of research on alternative tenure and enterprise models (ATEMs) for Central and West Africa which includes case studies from seven countries and two country context studies. As such, it provides a broader context for the individual case studies, as it analyzes the current status of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) at national level and considers their opportunities in domestic as well as regional or international markets.

    Gestion des ressources communautaires forestières en Colombie Britannique, Canada: Le cas des premières nations

    Gestion des ressources communautaires forestières en Colombie Britannique, Canada: Le cas des premières nations

    Belmond Tchoumba, Cécile Ndjebet - Centre pour le développement et l'environnement, Ecologie Cameroun

     

    Une introduction aux reformes entreprises par le gouvernement de la Colombie Britannique pour reconnaître les droits des peuples autochtones et pour mieux faciliter la foresterie communautaire.

    Alternate Tenure and Enterprise Models in Cameroon

    Alternate Tenure and Enterprise Models in Cameroon

    Community Forests in the Context of Community Rights and Forest Landscapes

    Peter Mbile, Gilbert Ndzomo-Abanda, Anicet Misouma - World Agroforestry Centre, Ngovayang Forest Project, Cameroon, Regional Delegate Ministry of Forest and Wildlife, Cameroon

     

    The present Cameroon context study brief is part of a larger body of research on alternative tenure and enterprise models (ATEMs) for Central and West Africa which includes case studies from seven countries and two country context studies. As such, it provides a broader context for the individual case studies, as it analyzes the current status of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) at national level and considers their opportunities in domestic as well as regional or international markets.

    Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa

    Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa

    Historical, Legal and Anthropological Perspectives

    Valérie Couillard, Jérémie Gilbert, Justin Kenrick, Christopher Kidd - Forest Peoples Programme, Middlesex University, University of Glasgow

     

    A series of five country studies, plus a broad overview, examining indigenous peoples' land rights in the forested countries of Africa.

     

    Associated Documents

    Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: Burundi Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: Burundi
    Historical developments in Burundi's land law and impacts on Batwa land ownership
    Jean-Pierre Amani
    Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: Cameroon Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: Cameroon
    The influence of historical and contemporary land laws on indigenous peoples' land rights in Cameroon
    Samuel Nguiffo, Pierre Étienne Kenfack, Nadine Mballa
    Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: DRC Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: DRC
    The dispossession of indigenous land rights in the DRC: A history and future prospects
    Prosper Nobirabo Musafiri
    Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: Rwanda Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: Rwanda
    Historical and contemporary land laws and their impact on indigenous peoples' land rights in Rwanda
    Chris Huggins
    Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: Uganda Land Rights and the Forest Peoples of Africa: Uganda
    Historical and contemporary land laws and their impact on indigenous peoples' land rights in Uganda: The case of the Batwa
    Rose Nakayi
    Improving Equity and the Means of Subsistence in Community Forestry in Burkina Faso

    Improving Equity and the Means of Subsistence in Community Forestry in Burkina Faso

    Bocar Kante - CIFOR

     

    This brief is part of a series of case studies conducted on Alternative Tenure and Enterprise Models.

     

    Associated Documents

    Recognising and supporting indigenous & community conservation—ideas & experiences from the grassroots

    Recognising and supporting indigenous & community conservation—ideas & experiences from the grassroots

    - IUCN, CEESP, WXPA, TILCEPA, TGER, WAMP, GTZ, GEF, Genesta, GEM-CON-BIO

     

    Indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs) have emerged as a major new phenomenon in formal conservation circles, though their existence is as old as human civilisation itself. International policies and programmes, notably those under the Convention on Biological Diversity, require countries to provide them with recognition and support. There is precious little guidance, however, on how to do this in ways that strengthen the governance of indigenous people and communities, rather than undermining their initiatives. This Briefing Note attempts to provide some tips towards sensitive recognition and support of ICCAs. It addresses governmental and non-governmental organizations, indigenous peoples and local communities willing to engage in exchanges of experiences and mutual learning and active support.

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - April 2009 - Issue 7

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - April 2009 - Issue 7

    Tracking the Forest Rights Act

    Arshiya Bose, Ashish Kothari - Kalpavriksh

     

    This is the 7th issue of the newsletter from Kalpavriksh, which tracks the progress and implementation of the Forest Rights Act in India.

    Who Owns the Forests of Africa? An introduction to the forest tenure transition in Africa, 2002-2008

    Who Owns the Forests of Africa? An introduction to the forest tenure transition in Africa, 2002-2008

    - Rights and Resources

     

    In recent decades there has been a shift away from government control of forest land towards increasing access and ownership for indigenous groups, communities, individuals, and firms. This brief highlights this transition in statutory forest tenure from 2002-2008 in Africa. The brief focuses on forest land tenure, but tenure over other forest resources (timber, non-timber forest products, carbon, sub-soil mineral ores, etc.) is often just as important. Moreover, although the focus is only on tenure in this analysis, the regulatory framework is also critically important because it specifies the rules regarding land use and who gets access to what resources.

     

    Associated Documents

    À qui appartiennent les forêts d’Afrique ? À qui appartiennent les forêts d’Afrique ?
    Une introduction à la transition de tenure forestière en Afrique, 2002-2008
    - Rights and Resources
    Indigenous Peoples’ Rights and Reduced Emissions from Reduced Deforestation and Forest Degradation: The Case of the Saramaka People v. Suriname

    Indigenous Peoples’ Rights and Reduced Emissions from Reduced Deforestation and Forest Degradation: The Case of the Saramaka People v. Suriname

    - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    Given that indigenous peoples are the traditional owners of a large percentage of the world’s remaining forests, to what extent should or must the various proposals for REDD or AD account for and respect indigenous peoples’ rights? As a way of thinking about this question, this note looks at a case decided by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (“the Court” or “the Inter-American Court”) in November 2007, the Saramaka People v. Suriname case. It concludes that attention to indigenous peoples’ rights is not only desirable as a means to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of climate change mitigation measures, but, also, that these rights must be viewed as part of the applicable legal framework for conceiving and implementing such measures. Failure to do so undermines the rule of law and will expose REDD proponents and investors to a series of serious risks.

    Tenure Rights and Beyond: Community Access to Forest Resources in Latin America

    Tenure Rights and Beyond: Community Access to Forest Resources in Latin America

    Anne M. Larson, Peter Cronkleton, Deborah Barry, Pablo Pacheco - CIFOR

     

    This occasional paper is the result of research carried out from 2006 to 2008 on the effects of new tenure rights for forest-based communities in Latin America on access to forest resources and benefits.

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 6, February 2009

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 6, February 2009

    Tracking the Forest Rights Act

    Arshiya Bose, Ashish Kothari - Kalpavriksh

     

    This is the 6th issue of the newsletter from Kalpavriksh, which tracks the progress and implementation of the Forest Rights Act in India.

    The State, Local Communities and the Change in the Status of Forests. Exclusive Legal Dualism on the Cameroonian Coast

    The State, Local Communities and the Change in the Status of Forests. Exclusive Legal Dualism on the Cameroonian Coast

    Strategy Note

    Phil René Oyono, Martin Biyong, Iris Flore Bayang, Calvin Sahmo - Cameroon Ecology

     

    This report is a part of a series of studies focused on Alternative Forestry Tenure and Enterprise Models.

     

    Associated Documents

    Etat, communautés locales et changement du statut des Forêts. Dualisme légal exclusif dans le littoral camerounais Etat, communautés locales et changement du statut des Forêts. Dualisme légal exclusif dans le littoral camerounais
    Note stratégique
    Phil René Oyono, Martin Biyong, Iris Flore Bayang, Calvin Sahmo
    Propriété alternative et modèles des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises Forestières pour la croissance économique en faveur des pauvres en Afrique centrale et Occidentale

    Propriété alternative et modèles des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises Forestières pour la croissance économique en faveur des pauvres en Afrique centrale et Occidentale

    Cas de la coopérative “moringa growers” (Rwanda)

    Cleto Ndikumagenge, Marie Jose Bigendako, Diomede Manirakiza, Thadee Habiyambere, Chantal Wandja - IUCN

     

    Ce rapport prend pour objet d'etude le cas des "Moringa growers' cooperative" au Rwanda, afin d'explorer les PMEF dans le contexte legislative rwandaise.

    Alternative Property and Small and Medium Forest Enterprise Models to Promote Economic Growth Benefiting the Poor in Central and West Africa:

    Alternative Property and Small and Medium Forest Enterprise Models to Promote Economic Growth Benefiting the Poor in Central and West Africa:

    Case of the Traditional Medicine Practitioners Association of Burundi (ATRAPRABU)

    Cleto Ndikumagenge, Salvator Ndabirorere, Diomede Manirakiza, Chantal Wandja - IUCN

     

    This brief focuses on the ATRAPRABU and SMFEs in the context of Burundian law and markets.

    Propriété alternative et modèles des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises Forestières pour la croissance économique en faveur des pauvres en Afrique centrale et Occidentale

    Propriété alternative et modèles des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises Forestières pour la croissance économique en faveur des pauvres en Afrique centrale et Occidentale

    Cas de l’association des tradipraticiens (ATRAPRABU) du Burundi

    Cleto Ndikumagenge, Salvator Ndabirorere, Diomede Manirakiza, Chantal Wandja - IUCN

     

    Ce rapport prend pour objet d'etude le cas de l'ATRAPRABU du Burundi pour examiner les marches et le contexte legislatif burundais.

    Foundations for Effectiveness: A framework for ensuring effective climate change mitigation and adaptation in forest areas while ensuring human rights and development

    Foundations for Effectiveness: A framework for ensuring effective climate change mitigation and adaptation in forest areas while ensuring human rights and development

    - Rights and Resources, Rainforest Foundation Norway

     

    Moving towards Copenhagen, governments party to the UNFCCC are preparing plans that will include forests in a global framework for addressing climate change mitigation. In this pivotal moment, it is critical to recognize, protect and strengthen the rights of indigenous peoples and forest communities — their full participation will be essential to the success of climate intervention strategies designed here.

    This policy brief aims to provide negotiators, their governments and inter-governmental organizations a clear framework for action to ensure that responses to climate change do not undermine national social and economic development.

    The analysis is based on the conclusions of the conference on Rights, Forests and Climate Change, organized by Rights and Resources Initiative and Rainforest Foundation Norway and held in Oslo, 15-17 October 2008.

     

    Associated Documents

    Bases para la Efectividad Bases para la Efectividad
    Marco para garantizar la efectividad de la mitigación y la adaptación al cambio climático en las regiones forestales al mismo tiempo que se garantizan los derechos humanos y el desarrollo
    - Rights and Resources, Rainforest Foundation Norway
    Fondations pour l’Efficacité Fondations pour l’Efficacité
    Note d’orientation politique
    - Rights and Resources
    The hottest REDD issues:  Rights, Equity, Development, Deforestation and Governance by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities

    The hottest REDD issues: Rights, Equity, Development, Deforestation and Governance by Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities

    Simone Lovera - CEESP Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policies - IUCN, TGER Theme on Governance Equity and Rights - IUCN, TILCEPA Theme on Governance, Communities, Equity and Livelihoods in relation to Protected Areas - IUCN

     

    This discussion paper is a contribution to the debate about policies and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). It focuses on the potential of governance of forests by indigenous peoples and local communities, and discusses implications of envisaged REDD regimes for local rights. The note discusses why equity and community engagement should be a paramount consideration of REDD regime and highlights opportunities as well as potential complications and pitfalls. It argues that crucial links need to be drawn between effective REDD regimes, biodiversity conservation and human rights instruments like the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

    Chinese Collective Forestlands: Contributions and Constraints

    Chinese Collective Forestlands: Contributions and Constraints

    Guangping Miao, Anders West

     

    This paper describes the key policy and institutional dimensions of China's collective forests and how collective forest property rights are defined by the law.

    Review of Legal Frameworks for Community-based Natural Resource Management in Selected Asian Countries (Draft)

    Review of Legal Frameworks for Community-based Natural Resource Management in Selected Asian Countries (Draft)

    Chip Fay - World Agroforestry Centre

     

    The Southeast Asia office of the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) worked with current RRI partners and selected individuals in the Asia region in the development of this regional overview of the main legal and regulatory questions concerning the ownership or access to and management of land-based natural resources. The following eight country studies were carried out as background material for RRI members and others interested in getting a relatively quick picture of the situation in each country. The format was designed to be consistent in order to facilitate information flow and uniformity.

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 5, December 2008

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 5, December 2008

    Tracking the Forest Rights Act

    Arshiya Bose, Ashish Kothari - Kalpavriksh

     

    This is the 5th issue of the newsletter from Kalpavriksh, which tracks the progress and implementation of the Forest Rights Act in India.

    ‘If You Saw It with My Eyes’: Collaborative Research and Assistance with Central American Forest Steward Communities

    ‘If You Saw It with My Eyes’: Collaborative Research and Assistance with Central American Forest Steward Communities

    Peter Leigh Taylor, Peter Cronkleton, Deborah Barry, Samantha Stone-Jovicich, Marianne Schmink - CIFOR, Colorado State University-Fort Collins, University of Florida, Gainsville

     

    Communities are making unprecedented gains worldwide in forest resource access and management rights. A new conservation actor, the forest steward community, is emerging in Central America as an effective collaborator in forest conservation. How best to support and strengthen this community-based conservation actor while minimizing external dependency? This paper discusses an experience with innovative participatory research in Guatemala and Nicaragua that aimed to strengthen community capabilities in natural resource management. The Grassroots Assistance Project trained community members to document and critically reflect upon local experience with forest management and external assistance. Together with regional context studies undertaken by professional researchers, these local ‘autosystematization’ studies made possible comprehensive documentation of the multiple dimensions of communities’ resource management, identification of their strengths and vulnerabilities and discussion of future strategies. Their endeavours also reveal an emerging alternative ‘accompaniment’ approach to technical assistance, which promotes a high level of partnership between communities and external institutions, in contrast to traditional assistance, which often creates dependency. Technical ‘accompaniment’ emphasizes long-term social processes, shared learning, community empowerment, validation of local knowledge and continual strengthening of organizational capabilities. It also suggests organizing assistance to pursue closer proximity to communities and their processes, flattening of technical staff hierarchies, flexible response to community input, more horizontal information exchange, and incorporation of social process indicators into assessment. Employed in combination with more traditional assistance approaches, the technical ‘accompaniment’ approach holds promise for strengthening communities’ capabilities as key allies in protecting and managing the environment for the future.

     

    Associated Documents

    Si lo vieras con mis ojos Si lo vieras con mis ojos
    Investigación colaborativa y cooperación con comunidades administradoras de bosques en Centroamérica
    Peter Leigh Taylor, Peter Cronkleton, Deborah Barry, Samantha Stone-Jovicich, Marianne Schmink - Colorado State University, CIFOR, University of Florida
    Convergence of food, fuel and fibre markets: driving change in the world’s forests

    Convergence of food, fuel and fibre markets: driving change in the world’s forests

    Don Roberts, Andy White, Sten Nilsson - CIBC World Markets Inc., Rights and Resources, IIASA

     

    Don Roberts, Andy White and Sten Nilsson set out the main factors responsible for the growing pressure on land, and forests in particular.

    Social Policies of Forest Concessionaries in West and Central Africa

    Social Policies of Forest Concessionaries in West and Central Africa

    Alain Karsenty, Chloé Jégou, Benjamin Singer - French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development, Sciences Po Grenoble

     

    This report cites a limited number of companies for their achievements in social relations within the enterprise and with local populations. Those companies operate also in a small number of countries, namely Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville, Ghana, Cameroon and DRC. On one hand, this recurrence reflects the heterogeneity of practices amongst the companies, most of which still have few social achievements to speak of, thus limiting the instances of progressive behaviour deserving to be cited. On the other hand, this report might not be equitable with some companies which may have made genuine efforts on social issues but which are not cited here due to the authors’ inability to contact them at the time of the study – many of the messages sent remain unanswered.

    Social Policies of Forest Concessionaires in West and Central Africa

    Social Policies of Forest Concessionaires in West and Central Africa

    Alain Karsenty, Chloé Jégou, Benjamin Singer

     

    National legislation has required the implementation of comprehensive social policies by concessionaires for over a decade in some of the region’s countries, yet it is only in the past few years that such changes have actually taken place – mostly as a result of a recent rush to FSC certification. This partly explains why the proliferation of social policies in timber concessions continues to be spearheaded by a small number of large, and mostly European, firms. So far, there is little sign that such policies are being generalised to other companies which are not seeking FSC certification, notably Asian ones. Further research is therefore needed to assess both the effectiveness of these new social policies on the ground, and their potential spillover effects to other companies involved in the sector.

    Local Rights and Tenure for Forests

    Local Rights and Tenure for Forests

    Opportunity or Threat for Conservation?

    Jeffrey Sayer, Jeffrey McNeely, Stewart Maginnis, Into Boedhihartono, Gill Shepherd, Bob Fisher - IUCN, Rights and Resources

     

    Conservation organizations are becoming increasingly aware of the need to deal equitably with local peoples’ rights to forest land and forest resources. “Rights-based” approaches to conservation are being widely promoted.1 In many situations these “Rights-based Approaches” are evolving alongside major forest governance reform initiatives. These two trends might be expected to seek similar goals – greater equity and certainty over who can use forests and for what purpose. The reality is that the processes of governance and rights reform are revealing underlying tensions between the needs to husband the local values of forests versus the need to conserve the so-called public goods values that accrue to society at large. Reconciling the trade-offs between local and public goods values will be a major challenge for resource managers in coming decades.

     

    Associated Documents

    Rights, Tenure, Governance and a More Pro-poor Vision for Conservation - Summary Rights, Tenure, Governance and a More Pro-poor Vision for Conservation - Summary

    Gill Shepherd, Bob Fisher, Stewart Maginnis, Jeffrey Sayer - IUCN, Rights and Resources
    Climate Change and Governance in the Forest Sector

    Climate Change and Governance in the Forest Sector

    An overview of the issues on forests and climate change with specific consideration of sector governance, tenure and access for local stakeholders

    Carmenza Robledo, Jürgen Blaser, Sarah Byrne, Kaspar Schmidt - Intercooperation, Rights and Resources

     

    Using forest options for addressing climate change requires a serious improvement in governance of forest resources that goes beyond traditional notions of governance and that includes issues regarding the public sector, the private sector, and civil society. Good governance of forest resources is critical for addressing climate change. Therefore, major efforts are needed for improving transparency, accountability, and equity within and among the public sector, the private sector, and civil society. For the achievement of good governance, clarification of forest tenure and use rights in favor of local forest-dependent stakeholders is a priority. Because of their nature, climate change options in forestry will always require high standards for implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Thus, high governance standards are an ultimate requirement. Unless robust and proactive steps are taken to clarify and strengthen the property rights of rural and forest peoples, future climate change initiatives will benefit only a few, primarily wealthy elites and will reinforce existing social and economic disparities.

     

    Associated Documents

    Climate Change and Governance in the Forest Sector - Summary Climate Change and Governance in the Forest Sector - Summary

    Carmenza Robledo, Juergen Blaser, Kaspar Schimdt, Tamara Levine - Intercooperation, Rights and Resources
    Beyond Timber: Certification and Management of Non-Timber Forest Products

    Beyond Timber: Certification and Management of Non-Timber Forest Products

    Patricia Shanley, Alan Pierce, Sarah Laird, Dawn Robinson - CIFOR, Forest Trends

     

    Forest certification is a market-based instrument that aims to encourage sustainable forest management for the multiple values of the forest beyond timber, to include non-timber forest products (NTFPs) and services, social and cultural values and future options. To date, there are over fifty commercial NTFPs for which certification standards have been approved and on-going evaluations of original products in new countries and forest types. Thus far, the share of certified timber in the marketplace makes up less than 1 percent of the total forest area and less than 3 percent of the total timber trade value, although it is growing significantly. The share of the commercial value of certified NTFPs is even smaller, as NTFP certification is still in its infancy.

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 4, October 2008

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 4, October 2008

    Arshiya Bose, Ashish Kothari - Kalpavriksh

     

    Issue 4 of the monthly newsletter from Kalpavriksh which tracks the progress and implementation of the Forest Rights Act in India.

    The African Human Rights System

    The African Human Rights System

    A Guide for Indigenous Peoples

    Treva Braun, Lucy Mulvagh - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    This guide provides an overview of the African system for the promotion and protection of human and peoples’ rights, as developed under the umbrella of the African Union (AU). Established in 2001, the AU is an inter-governmental organisation of which all African countries except Morocco are members. It replaced the former Organisation of African Unity (OAU). In addition to its broad mandate on economic issues, socio-political development, and peace and security, the AU has as one of its objectives “To promote and protect human and peoples’ rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights and other relevant human rights instruments”. While still in its infancy in terms of the promotion and protection of indigenous peoples’ rights, the African system is comprised of a number of legal norms and mechanisms that may be of use to indigenous peoples and organisations in Africa. This guide is intended to be used as a reference tool by indigenous peoples and organisations working to defend the rights of indigenous peoples in Africa, but should not be considered as a complete explanation of the relevant law or processes.

    Key Issues on Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF ) with an Emphasis on Developing Country Perspectives

    Key Issues on Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF ) with an Emphasis on Developing Country Perspectives

    Carmenza Robledo, Jürgen Blaser - Intercooperation, UNDP

     

    This paper introduces the key issues and challenges arising from the discussions on Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. It provides: • An overview of LULUCF activities, including challenges in the past and present negotiations; • A review of data and information on the key mitigation options in the LULUCF sector, with particular reference to forestry; • A summary of the main LULUCF issues currently under negotiation.

    Aborvitae 36: Rights-based approaches to forest conservation

    Aborvitae 36: Rights-based approaches to forest conservation

    Gill Shepherd, Liz Alden Wily, Eugenia Ponce de Leon, Annalisa Savaresi Hartmann, Janis Bristol Alcorn, Bob Fisher, Gonzalo Oveido, Madhu Sarin, Arturo Santos, Julian Orozco, Evelyn Chaves, Marcus Colchester, Augusta Molnar, Andy White, Arvind Khare, William Sunderlin, Nii Ashie Kotey, Paulo de Tarso de Lara Pires, Thomas Greiber - IUCN

     

    The debate on rights-based approaches to conservation is occurring at a time when conservation thinking is being profoundly challenged. The need for conservation to recognize the rights of those people who are most impacted by global conservation initiatives makes rights-based thinking not only a question of ethics and social justice, but also a practical imperative for saving species and ecosystems.

    Forest restoration, rights and power: what’s going wrong in the ngitili forests of Shinyanga?
    Gill Shepherd looks at a sobering case of how forest restoration has helped spark the erosion of rights of the poor.

    Liberia’s Community Forest Rights Law: what will it look like?
    Liz Alden Wily gives a preview of Liberia’s new legal instrument for reinstating community rights in the forest sector.

    Colombia’s new forest law rejected
    Eugenia Ponce de León reflects on a successful legal challenge to a forest law that neglected community rights.

    Human rights and forest conservation: what does the law say?
    Annalisa Savaresi Hartmann looks at some legal aspects of the rights-conservation nexus.

    Why forest conservation is not good news for local communities
    Janis Bristol Alcorn takes a critical look at what forest conservation has done for local people’s rights.

    Rights-based approaches to forest conservation
    Bob Fisher and Gonzalo Oviedo look at some of the issues and contradictions behind the concepts of rights in a forest conservation context.

    Righting the wrongs done to India’s forest dwellers
    Madhu Sarin discusses how a new law is reversing some of the injustices of forest management in India.

    Guatemala: indigenous management of a protected area
    Arturo Santos and Julian Orozco outline how a protected area project involved a radical rethink of the role of local indigenous people in conservation.

    When rights don’t count: obstacles to community forestry in Central America
    Evelyn Chaves looks at some of the barriers to communities exercising their forest rights.

    Indonesia: putting rights into forest conservation
    Marcus Colchester reviews the challenges of securing community forest rights in Indonesia

    From hinterland to centre stage: forests, people and rights
    Augusta Molnar, Andy White, Arvind Khare and William Sunderlin reflect on the importance of rights and governance as pressure grows on the world’s forests.

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation: the need for a rights-based approach
    Nii Ashie Kotey, Paulo de Tarso de Lara Pires, and Thomas Greiber reflect on the reasoning behind a rights-based approach to REDD.

     

    Associated Documents

    Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam

    Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam

    Case Studies from the Northern Upland and Central Highlands Regions

    Nguyen Quang Tan, Nguyen Ba Ngai, Tran Ngoc Thanh, William Sunderlin, Yurdi Yasmi - RECOFTC, Rights and Resources

     

    This paper is part of a study by RECOFTC that aims to acquire a better understanding of the situation of forest tenure and the implementation of Vietnam's forest tenure policies.

    The study finds that despite two decades of state control over forests in Vietnam, traditional forest management systems endure. Under these conditions and with timely external support, local communities can not only benefit from forest management, but also protect allocated forests from unauthorized use.

    Forestry and Poverty Data in Viet Nam: Status, Gaps, and Potential Uses

    Forestry and Poverty Data in Viet Nam: Status, Gaps, and Potential Uses

    Nguyen Ba Ngai, Nguyen Quang Tan, William D. Sunderlin, Yurdi Yasmi - Rights and Resources, RECOFTC, Viet Nam Forestry University

     

    This paper is a key output from the Transforming China’s Forests Impacts in Southeast Asia: Advancing Pro-Poor Market Reform for Sustainable Livelihoods and Forests project, conducted by RECOFTC and the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI). The project aim is to advance policy and market reforms in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

    The report focuses on understanding the current situation of data availability with regard to forest resources, forest tenure, markets for forest products, and poverty, with a view to identifying policy barriers, constraints, and issues for further work.

    People, Forests and Human Well-Being

    People, Forests and Human Well-Being

    Managing Forests for People in a Period of Rapid Change

    Mary Hobley - RECOFTC

     

    A synthesis report on the outcomes of the Asia Pacific Forestry Week’s Social Session, organized by RECOFTC with support from AFN and FAO.

    From Exclusion to Ownership? Challenges and Opportunities in Advancing Forest Tenure Reform

    From Exclusion to Ownership? Challenges and Opportunities in Advancing Forest Tenure Reform

    William D. Sunderlin, Jeffrey Hatcher, Megan Liddle - Rights and Resources

     

    In 2002 "Who Owns the World’s Forests?: Forest Tenure and Forests in Transition" reported that in recent decades governments had begun to reduce their legal ownership and control of the world’s forests. The aim of this report is to measure whether this forest tenure transition continued in the 2002 – 2008 period, and to assess the implications of statutory forest tenure change for forest peoples, governments, and the global community.

    The findings of this study show that despite a continued transition towards recognizing forest land access and ownership of local people, significant challenges remain. The report describes these challenges and provides recommendations on how the forest tenure reform process can be carried forward.

     

    Associated Documents

    From Exclusion to Ownership? - Summary From Exclusion to Ownership? - Summary
    Challenges and Opportunities in Advancing Forest Tenure Reform
    - Rights and Resources
    Seeing People Through the Trees: Scaling Up Efforts to Advance Rights and Address Poverty, Conflict and Climate Change

    Seeing People Through the Trees: Scaling Up Efforts to Advance Rights and Address Poverty, Conflict and Climate Change

    - Rights and Resources

     

    Forest areas have an integral role in the development agenda of the next several decades because of the myriad challenges that converge within their landscapes. Donor agencies and policy-makers can change historical patterns of forest governance and management as a first and critical step toward addressing the impending global challenges of climate change, ongoing conflict and persistent poverty.

    The report references past models of forest management to demonstrate the weaknesses in prior governance structures while emphasizing gaps and opportunities for the strategic involvement of the international community. The key messages and recommendations to emerge from this literature speak to the global development community, country governments and civil society regarding their roles in forest tenure reform and improved governance.

     

    Associated Documents

    Seeing People Through the Trees  - Summary Seeing People Through the Trees - Summary
    Scaling up efforts to advance rights and address poverty, conflict and climate change
    - Rights and Resources
    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 3, July 2008

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 3, July 2008

    Tracking the Forest Rights Act

    Arshiya Bose - Kalpavriksh

     

    Issue 3 of the monthly newsletter from Kalpavriksh which tracks the progress and implementation of the Forest Rights Act in India.

    Beyond Tenure: Rights-Based Approaches to People and Forests

    Beyond Tenure: Rights-Based Approaches to People and Forests

    Some lessons from the Forest Peoples Programme

    Marcus Colchester - Forest Peoples Programme, Rights and Resources

     

    This analysis from Forest Peoples Programme and RRI concludes that forest tenure reforms must take into account a wide range of human rights beyond solely security of property rights. Effective forest tenure reforms must include respect for the broad range of social, political and economic rights protected in international human rights treaties but frequently absent from narrow sectoral decision-making about forests.

     

    Associated Documents

    Beyond Tenure: Rights-based Approaches to Peoples and Forests - Summary Beyond Tenure: Rights-based Approaches to Peoples and Forests - Summary

    Marcus Colchester - Forest Peoples Programme, Rights and Resources
    Free, Prior and Informed Consent and Sustainable Forest Management in the Congo Basin

    Free, Prior and Informed Consent and Sustainable Forest Management in the Congo Basin

    A feasability study conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Republic of Congo and Gabon regarding the operationalisation of FSC Principles 2 and 3 in the Congo Basin

    Jerome Lewis, Luke Freeman, Sophie Borreil - Intercooperation, Society for Threatened Poeples, Anthroscape

     

    This document is the result of a study into how the notion of free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) can be put into practice in forestry concessions in the Congo Basin. FPIC is a concept that is gaining acceptance as a way of defining and regulating contractual relationships. It is applied in contexts such as medical intervention, social welfare, and, in this case, resource management.

    Whose Land Is It? Commons and Conflict States

    Whose Land Is It? Commons and Conflict States

    Why the Ownership of the Commons Matters in Making and Keeping Peace

    Liz Alden Wily - Rights and Resources

     

    This paper addresses the tenure fate of three commons: the 30 million hectares of pasturelands of Afghanistan which represent 45 percent of the total land area and are key to livelihood and water catchment in that exceedingly dry country; the 5.7 million hectares of timber-rich tropical forests in Liberia, 59 percent of the total land area; and the 125 million hectares of savannah in Sudan, half the area of that largest state of Africa. All three resources have an uncountably long history as customary properties of local communities. They also share a 20th century history as the property of the state. Of course there is nothing unusual in this contradiction. Between one and two billion people on the planet today are tenants of the State (CLEP, 2008, Alden Wily, forthcoming (b)). They live on and use traditional properties on which, in the eyes of the national laws of those countries, they are no more than lawful occupants and users. When their expansive collectively-owned forest, pastoral and swamp lands are taken into account, up to five billion hectares are involved, potentially one third of the world’s total land area.

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 2, June 2008

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 2, June 2008

    Tracking the Forest Rights Act

    Kothari - Kalpavriksh

     

    Issue 2 of the Kalpavriksh newsletter on the Forest Rights Act implementation in India.

    Pro-Poor Land Tenure Reform and Democratic Governance

    Pro-Poor Land Tenure Reform and Democratic Governance

    Discussion Paper 3 - Oslo Governance Centre

    Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Monica di Gregorio, Stephan Dohrn - CAPRi, UNDP

     

    This discussion paper provides a review of how different forms of land tenure reform relate to decentralization and local governance, in theory and practice. It will guide readers who are familiar with decentralization and local governance approaches to understand the main issues and challenges posed by land tenure reforms to achieve pro-poor impact. Because land tenure reform assigns control over resources that are critical for both identity and livelihood, it will be contentious. It is, therefore, important to distinguish among four different types of land tenure reform and critically assess the political economy context and the type of decentralization as well as national-local governance relationships in which land tenure reform will be implemented. It is equally important to understand the implications of various land tenure reform types for democratic governance and social inclusion / cohesion.

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 1, May 2008

    Kalpavriksh Newsletter - Issue 1, May 2008

    Arshiya Bose, Ashish Kothari - Kalpavriksh

     

    Issue 1 of the monthly newsletter from Kalpavriksh which tracks the progress and implementation of the Forest Rights Act in India.

    Whose Forest Tenure Reform Is It? Lessons from Case Studies in Vietnam

    Whose Forest Tenure Reform Is It? Lessons from Case Studies in Vietnam

    Nguyen Quang Tan, Nguyen Ba Ngai, Tran Ngoc Thanh - RECOFTC, Rights and Resources

     

    This Policy Brief presents some of the major findings of a study conducted to determine how forest tenure reform in Vietnam has worked in practice and how it has affected local people's livelihoods. The policy brief focuses on four issues: actual control over forest resources; local people's confusion about their rights; impacts of forest tenure reform on poverty alleviation; and the ability of local people to manage forests.

    Collective Forest Tenure Reform in Southwest China- English

    Collective Forest Tenure Reform in Southwest China- English

    Experiences and Challenges

    Su Yufang, Zhao Yaqiao, Gan Tingyu, Xu Wei, Ren Xiaodong - World Agroforestry Centre-China

     

    This research aims to provide policy guidance on the ongoing implementation of collective forest tenure reforms in southwest China.

     

    Associated Documents

    Collective Forest Tenure Reform in Southwest China- Chinese Collective Forest Tenure Reform in Southwest China- Chinese

    Su Yufang, Zhao Yaqiao, Gan Tingyu, Xu Wei, Ren Xiaodong - World Agroforestry Centre-China
    Indigenous and Traditional Peoples and Climate Change

    Indigenous and Traditional Peoples and Climate Change

    Issues Paper

    Mirjam Macchi, Gonzalo Oviedo, Sarah Gotheil, Katharine Cross, Agni Boedhihartono, Caterina Wolfangel, Matthew Howell - IUCN

     

    Indigenous peoples around the world will bear the brunt of climate change – but they are also armed with the traditional knowledge to survive its effects.

    The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

    The Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

    Facilitating the weakening of indigenous peoples' rights to lands and resources

    - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    There are key shortcomings in the draft Charter and background documents for the World Bank's Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, including failure to provide for full participation from indigenous peoples, lack of consultation to-date, and failure to include commitments to upholding human rights.

     

    Associated Documents

    El Fondo cooperativo para el carbono de los bosques (FCPF) El Fondo cooperativo para el carbono de los bosques (FCPF)
    Una herramienta que menoscaba los derechos de los pueblos indigenas a sus tierras y recursos
    - Forest Peoples Programme
    Le Fonds de partenariat pour le carbone forestier Le Fonds de partenariat pour le carbone forestier
    Vers un affaiblissement des droits des peuples autochtones sur les terres et les ressources
    - Forest Peoples Programme
    Supporting Small Forest Enterprises - A Cross-sectoral Review of Best Practice

    Supporting Small Forest Enterprises - A Cross-sectoral Review of Best Practice

    Duncan Macqueen - IIED

     

    This report reviews the growing consensus on best practice in small enterprise support, both within and outside the forest sector. It describes how a framework known as ‘market system development’ unites attempts to: strengthen enterprise associations, facilitate better provision of financial and business development services, and improve the business environment. It concludes with specific recommendations for support to SMFEs.

    Distinguishing Community Forest Products in the Market: Industrial Demand for a Mechanism That Brings Together Forest Certification and Fair Trade

    Distinguishing Community Forest Products in the Market: Industrial Demand for a Mechanism That Brings Together Forest Certification and Fair Trade

    Duncan Macqueen, Annie Dufey, Ana Patrícia Cota Gomes, Nelda Sanchez Hidalgo, Maria Regina Nouer, Ruben Pasos, Luis Alfonso Argüelles Suárez, Vaithehi Subendranathan, Zazil Ha García Trujillo, Sonja Vermeulen, Mauricio de Almeida Voivodic, Emma Wilson - IIED

     

    This report assesses demand for a mechanism that brings together forest certification and fair trade in the timber market. Timber buyers from 21 countries were surveyed as part of this study - with more detailed value chain analysis in 4 country case studies. The report concludes that there is indeed both demand and practical options to do more for community forest producers. A historic opportunity exists to bring together forest certification and fair trade in the interests both of communities and the forests on which they depend.

    Environmental Governance and the Emergence of Forest-Based Social Movements

    Environmental Governance and the Emergence of Forest-Based Social Movements

    Peter Cronkleton, Peter Leigh Taylor, Deborah Barry, Samantha Stone-Jovicich, Marianne Schmink - CIFOR

     

    This occasional paper is based on the results of a three-year project examining the emergence of forest-based grassroots movements in Latin America. The project focused on four noteworthy cases in Central America and Brazil, each representing ‘successful’ broad-based collective action to defend local control and use of forest lands.

    The cases suggest that local communities can become effective forest stewards when acquired rights are duly recognized, avenues exist for meaningful participation, costs and benefits are distributed fairly, and appropriate external support is provided.

    Forest Governance in Countries with Federal Systems of Government

    Forest Governance in Countries with Federal Systems of Government

    Lessons and implications for decentralization

    Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Hans M. Gregersen, Andy White - CIFOR, Forest Trends, Rights and Resources

     

    This study examines the experience of federal countries in managing their decentralized systems of forest governance.

    More than three quarters of developing countries and nations in transition are in the midst of experimenting with decentralization of their governments. Decentralized governance in general in the forestry sector in particular is thought to lead to better forest management outcomes. In federal governments, decentralization tends to be more pronounced.

     

    Associated Documents

    Forest Governance in Countries with Federal Systems of Government - Brief Forest Governance in Countries with Federal Systems of Government - Brief

    Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Hans M. Gregersen, Andy White - CIFOR, Forest Trends, Rights and Resources
    Forest-Related Conflict

    Forest-Related Conflict

    Impacts, Links and Measures to Mitigate

    Ruben de Koning, Doris Capistrano, Yurdi Yasmi, Paolo Cerutti - CIFOR, RECOFTC, Rights and Resources

     

    Forest-based conflict is one of the major global challenges for the international forestry agenda together with poverty, climate change, conservation, and biofuels. In this paper, we will estimate the scope of the problem for people and forests, identify the role of forest rights and tenure as part of the cause of and solution to conflict, and project future challenges. We will recommend a set of actions that donors, govern¬ments, and civil society organizations should embark on to fight corruption, to tackle power imbalances, to clarify rights, to improve corporate responsibility, and to engage communities in resource management.

    Forest tenure and governance reform will not resolve the most violent conflicts that play out in forests around the world. However, forestry sectors can contribute to the creation of enabling environments for peace by preventing conflict escalation and by contributing to postconflict reconstruction. Engagements in structural forest-sector reform and forest-based investment are particularly needed in forest-rich and conflict-prone countries in the tropics. The ideas and projections included in this paper are preliminary and meant to stimulate reflection rather than to insist on particular conclusions.

     

    Associated Documents

    Forest Related Conflict: Impacts, Links and Measures to Mitigate - Summary Forest Related Conflict: Impacts, Links and Measures to Mitigate - Summary

    Ruben de Koning, Doris Capistrano, Yurdi Yasmi - CIFOR, Rights and Resources
    An Ear to the Ground: Tenure Changes and Challenges for Forest Communities in Latin America

    An Ear to the Ground: Tenure Changes and Challenges for Forest Communities in Latin America

    Deborah Barry, Peter Leigh Taylor - Rights and Resources, CIFOR

     

    The Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) “Listening, Learning and Sharing Launch” (LLSL) was designed as an “ear to the ground” for hearing the assessments and concerns of NGOs, community organizations, politicians, scholars, and governments in lowland tropical forest countries around the world. With limited financial and human resources dedicated to this, the exercise attempted to gather these inputs, concerns and perspectives to help shape the unique effort ‘under construction’ in RRI to bring the voices, experiences and current issues of communities and social movements to planning ways to break the logjam that is impeding progress in improving management of the worlds forests. We realize the sense of urgency, as we are at a time when the world is faced with global climate change and needs to maintain and expand forest coverage while protecting the local livelihoods that also contribute to protecting global ones.

    In the Latin America LLSL, information, analyses and interpretations were gathered regarding trends and issues through desktop research, case studies, interviews, field visits, and researchers´ participation in regional events. Given the significant forest area now under indigenous peoples´ claims and/or control, special emphasis was given to gathering perspectives on tenure and poverty issues among indigenous communities.

     

    Associated Documents

    LLSL Country Case Study: Guatemala LLSL Country Case Study: Guatemala

    Anne Larson - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Honduras LLSL Country Case Study: Honduras

    Anne Larson - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Nicaragua LLSL Country Case Study: Nicaragua

    Anne Larson - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Panama LLSL Country Case Study: Panama

    Anne Larson - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Forest Tenure and Poverty in Peru LLSL Country Case Study: Forest Tenure and Poverty in Peru

    Peter Leigh Taylor - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Forest Tenure and Poverty in Brazil  LLSL Country Case Study: Forest Tenure and Poverty in Brazil
    With an emphasis on the states of Acre, Amazonas, and Pará
    Samantha Stone - Rights and Resources
    The Boomerang - When Will the Global Forest Sector Reallocate from the South to the North?

    The Boomerang - When Will the Global Forest Sector Reallocate from the South to the North?

    Sten Nilsson - IIASA

     

    This paper examines the commonly held notion that the forest sector in the south will dominate in the future by addressing issues such as climate change, increasing demands for food as global development accelerates, and the pursuit of alternative fuel sources.

    Power, Progress and Impoverishment: Plantations, Hydropower, Ecological Change and Community Transformation in Hinboun District, Lao PDR

    Power, Progress and Impoverishment: Plantations, Hydropower, Ecological Change and Community Transformation in Hinboun District, Lao PDR

    A Field Report

    Keith Barney

     

    This report documents the contemporary ecological, social and economic transformations occurring in one village in Lao PDR’s central Khammouane province under multiple sources of development-induced displacement. Rural development policy in Laos is focused on promoting rapid rural modernisation, to be achieved through foreign direct investments in two key resource sectors: hydropower and plantations. Laos’ land reform program is also a key component of the changes underway in the countryside, as swidden (or shifting) upland cultivation is targeted for stabilisation and elimination.

    Overview of Industrial Forest Concessions and Concession-based Industry in Central and West Africa, and Considerations of Alternatives

    Overview of Industrial Forest Concessions and Concession-based Industry in Central and West Africa, and Considerations of Alternatives

    Alain Karsenty - CIRAD

     

    Concessions in Africa have a long history and mixed records. From the 1980-90’s onwards, concessions were gradually requested to bear new responsibilities, previously carried out by governments, such as the management of production forests and the oversight of some parts of the territories where forest concessions are prominent. The concessions sector is still dominated by the Europeans, but with an increasing prominence of Asian companies, which are already dominant in Equatorial Guinea, CAR and South-Congo. There is, however, a room and a need for diversification of forest tenure models, which might be seen as complementary rather, at least for the foreseeable future, than alternatives competing with the current system.

    Small and Medium Forest Enterprises: Instruments of Change in the Developing World

    Small and Medium Forest Enterprises: Instruments of Change in the Developing World

    Robert Kozak - University of British Columbia, Rights and Resources

     

    Small and medium forest enterprises (SMFEs) are seen important elements of strategies aimed at pro-poor economic growth in developing regions. They are characterized by a diverse range of stakeholders, actors, businesses, structures, networks, products, and services. Unfortunately, little has been done in the way of quantifying the contributions of these enterprises to economic growth and employment. This report recommends that concerted research efforts be undertaken to better understand the size, scope, characteristics, and dynamics of this sector and that this information be used to inform civil society, development agencies, and governments on devising and implementing appropriate interventions and policy reforms aimed at reducing poverty in the forest dependent communities of the developing world.

    So Who Owns the Forest

    So Who Owns the Forest

    An investigation into forest ownership and customary land rights in Liberia

    Liz Alden Wily - SDI Liberia, FERN

     

    This landmark study sets out the confusions and conundrums of forest tenure in Liberia today and develops clear recommendations towards solving potential conflicts over natural resources.

    The study shows that Liberia can set a precedent by returning ownership of land to communities. This would lead to improved forest governance, control of illegal logging and remedial action against historical injustices.

    Community-Based Forest Enterprises in Tropical Forest Countries: Status and Potential

    Community-Based Forest Enterprises in Tropical Forest Countries: Status and Potential

    Augusta Molnar, Megan Liddle, Carina Bracer, Arvind Khare, Andy White, Justin Bull - ITTO, Rights and Resources, Forest Trends

     

    Like all forest enterprises, community forestry enterprises (CFEs) have a mixed record, with numerous cases of successes as well as failures. As the experience in developed countries attest, SMEs can emerge and flourish where the tenure and policy frameworks allow them to exist legally and compete fairly with large-scale enterprises. Unfortunately, only a few tropical countries have had favourable conditions in place for a sufficiently long time to enable their development or viability. This study identifies some shared trends for the emergence and development of CFEs in a range of different tropical countries that indicate a high level of promise overall.

     

    Associated Documents

    2007 CFE Conference - Case Study Agrofort 2007 CFE Conference - Case Study Agrofort

    Charlotte Benneker - Wageningen University
    2007 CFE Conference - Civil Society for Arbol Verde Development 2007 CFE Conference - Civil Society for Arbol Verde Development

    Dietmar Stoian, Aldo Rodas - CATIE - CeCoEco
    2007 CFE Conference: Including the Excluded 2007 CFE Conference: Including the Excluded
    A Pro-Poor Bel Fruit Juice Making Enterprise in Nepal
    Dinesh Paudel - RECOFTC
    2007 CFE Conference - Community Forest Development in Guatemala 2007 CFE Conference - Community Forest Development in Guatemala
    A Case Study of Cooperativa Carmelita
    Dietmar Stoian, Aldo Rodas - CATIE - CeCoEco
    2007 CFE Conference: Supporting Livelihoods through Employment 2007 CFE Conference: Supporting Livelihoods through Employment
    The Chaubas-Bhumlu Community Sawmill, Nepal
    Netra Prasad Timsina - Forest Action - Nepal
    2007 CFE Conference - A Brief History of the COATLAHL Cooperative 2007 CFE Conference - A Brief History of the COATLAHL Cooperative
    At Last A Little Optimism
    Filippo Del Gatto, Danilo Davila, Jens Kanstrub, Sergio Herrera, Andre Mildam, Noe Polanco
    2007 CFE Conference: One Small Peasant Village’s Grand Forest Industry 2007 CFE Conference: One Small Peasant Village’s Grand Forest Industry
    A Case Study of the El Balcon Ejido in Western Mexico
    Claudio Garibay Orozco - Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible A.C.
    2007 CFE Conference - Community Forest Enterprises: A Case Study of the Gambia 2007 CFE Conference - Community Forest Enterprises: A Case Study of the Gambia

    Wolfgang Thoma, Kanimang Camara - UN Food and Agriculture Organization
    2007 CFE Conference - Community Forestry Benefits Customary Landowners 2007 CFE Conference - Community Forestry Benefits Customary Landowners
    Madang Province, Papua New Guinea
    Yati Bun, Bazakie Baput - FPCD
    2007 CFE Conference: Payments for environmental services in San Nicolas, Colombia 2007 CFE Conference: Payments for environmental services in San Nicolas, Colombia
    A Participatory and Holistic Approach in Forestry
    Carmenza Robledo, Patricia Tobon - EMPA, CORNARE
    2007 CFE Conference: Country Case Study, Quintana Roo, Mexico 2007 CFE Conference: Country Case Study, Quintana Roo, Mexico
    Sociedad de Productores Forestales Ejidales de Quintana Roo
    Peter Wilshusen - Bucknell University
    2007 CFE Conference: PingShang Bamboo Group 2007 CFE Conference: PingShang Bamboo Group
    A Case Study of a Community Enterprise in China's Bamboo Sub-sector
    R. Anders West, Christopher Aldridge - China Agricultural University, Beijing P.R. China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou P.R. China
    2007 CFE Conference - Behind the Fragile Enterprise 2007 CFE Conference - Behind the Fragile Enterprise
    Community-based Timber Utilization in the Southern Philippines
    Juan Pulhin, Anthony Ramirez
    2007 CFE Conference - Community Based Forest Enterprises in Cameroon 2007 CFE Conference - Community Based Forest Enterprises in Cameroon
    A case study of the Ngola-Achip Community Forest in East Cameroon
    Kenneth Angu Angu - IUCN - Regional Office for Central Africa
    2007 CFE Conference: From subsistence harvesters to market players 2007 CFE Conference: From subsistence harvesters to market players
    The evolution of brazil nut production in Manicore, Amazonas State, Brazil
    Alejandra Martin - IBENS
    2007 CFE Conference - Case Study of Mamiraua, Brazil 2007 CFE Conference - Case Study of Mamiraua, Brazil

    Andrea Pires - Mamiraua Institute for Sustainable Development (MISD)
    2007 CFE Conference: The New Oil Economy of the Rural Poor 2007 CFE Conference: The New Oil Economy of the Rural Poor
    Biofuel Planations for Power, Water, Transport and Carbon Credits
    Emmanual D'Silva
    2007 Conferencia ECF: Breve Historia de la Cooperativa COATLAHL 2007 Conferencia ECF: Breve Historia de la Cooperativa COATLAHL
    Al fin un poco de optimismo
    Filippo Del Gatto
    Transitions in Forest Tenure and Governance: Drivers, Projected Patterns and Implications

    Transitions in Forest Tenure and Governance: Drivers, Projected Patterns and Implications

    - Rights and Resources

     

    Major shifts in the global economy, as well as in social, political and ecological systems are affecting forests and forest livelihoods such that future challenges in the forest sector will be quite distinct from those faced in the past. The forest sector is now more embedded in the global economy than ever before, and the influence of other sectors on forests, forest peoples and forest industry will similarly be much greater in the future than in the past. This paper briefly presents our perspectives on: (1) major drivers shaping forest tenure and governance, (2) projected patterns by 2020 and (3) the implications of these transitions for those concerned with forest livelihoods and conservation today.

     

    Associated Documents

    Transitions in Forest Tenure and Governance - Summary Transitions in Forest Tenure and Governance - Summary
    Drivers, projected patterns and implications for the global community
    - Rights and Resources
    The Poverty of Forestry Policy

    The Poverty of Forestry Policy

    Double standards on an uneven playing field

    Jesse Ribot, Anne M. Larson

     

    This article examines how forestry policy and implementation maintain double standards in a manner that excludes the rural poor from the natural wealth around them.

    Convergence of the Fuel, Food and Fiber Markets - Summary

    Convergence of the Fuel, Food and Fiber Markets - Summary

    A Forest Sector Perspective

    Don G. Roberts - CIBC World Markets, Rights and Resources

     

    The biofuels sector will continue to experience significant growth over the coming decades, and over time its development will lead to a convergence of the markets for fuel, food and fiber (e.g. wood). This is a summary of the full paper prepared for the conference "Towards a New Global Forest Agenda", held in Stockholm in October 2007.

    Poverty, Rights and Tenure on Forest Lands

    Poverty, Rights and Tenure on Forest Lands

    Priority Actions for Achieving Solutions

    William D. Sunderlin - Rights and Resources

     

    A background paper for the conference "Towards a New Global Forest Agenda", held in Stockholm in October 2007.

    The Dispute Resolution Process in Relation to Logging Permits in China

    The Dispute Resolution Process in Relation to Logging Permits in China

    Li Ping - Rural Development Institute

     

    This paper examines the dispute resolution experiences in the US, UK and Ireland with respect to denial of applications for logging permits, and its possible application to China.

    The Impact of Regulatory Takings by the Chinese State on Rural Land Tenure and Property Rights

    The Impact of Regulatory Takings by the Chinese State on Rural Land Tenure and Property Rights

    Li Ping - Rural Development Institute

     

    This paper will introduce and discuss regulatory takings laws in the US and some European countries. It makes a series of recommendations on legislative reforms in China’s regulatory takings regime taking into account the unique characteristics of China’s property rights institution.

    The Trouble with Tenure Security in Laos

    The Trouble with Tenure Security in Laos

    Keith Barney - TERRA

     

    The extension of land reform and titling programs into upland zones is currently being debated in Lao PDR. However, these reforms are advancing a version of tenure security that promotes market-oriented forestry development and legitimates neoliberal approaches to poverty alleviation.

    This paper examines the contradictions at the heart of the "tenure security" discourse, drawing on the example of a village in central Laos. New land reform policies in Laos, implemented in concert with swidden reduction policies and large-scale investments in the natural resource sector are leaving to further insecurity and impoverishment of local communities.

    Community-Based Forest Enterprises in Tropical Forest Countries - Full Report with Annexes

    Community-Based Forest Enterprises in Tropical Forest Countries - Full Report with Annexes

    Augusta Molnar, Megan Liddle, Carina Bracer, Arvind Khare, Andy White, Justin Bull - ITTO, Rights and Resources, Forest Trends

     

    Like all forest enterprises, community forestry enterprises (CFEs) have a mixed record, with numerous cases of successes as well as failures. As the experience in developed countries attest, SMEs can emerge and flourish where the tenure and policy frameworks allow them to exist legally and compete fairly with large-scale enterprises. Unfortunately, only a few tropical countries have had favorable conditions in place for a sufficiently long time to enable their development or viability. This study identifies some shared trends for the emergence and development of CFEs in a range of different tropical countries that indicate a high level of promise overall.

    This full version of the report includes annexes with the case study methodology, a field survey of community forestry operations in Mexico, a survey of cases of community participation in Markets for Ecosystem Services, and summaries of the twenty case studies surveyed in the main report.

     

    Associated Documents

    Empresas Forestales Comunitarias en Países Forestales Tropicales: Situación Actual y en Potencia Empresas Forestales Comunitarias en Países Forestales Tropicales: Situación Actual y en Potencia

    Augusta Molnar, Megan Liddle, Carina Bracer, Arvind Khare, Andy White, Justin Bull - ITTO, Rights and Resources, Forest Trends
    Entreprises forestières communautaires dans les pays forestiers tropicaux: Situation et potentialites Entreprises forestières communautaires dans les pays forestiers tropicaux: Situation et potentialites

    Augusta Molnar, Megan Liddle, Carina Bracer, Arvind Khare, Andy White, Justin Bull - ITTO, RRI, Forest Trends
    Land, Forest and People: Facing the Challenges in South-East Asia

    Land, Forest and People: Facing the Challenges in South-East Asia

    Listening, Learning and Sharing Asia Final Report

    Marcus Colchester, Chip Fay - Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre

     

    Over the past 20 years, the region reviewed in this report - South East Asia stretching from Laos across to Indonesia - has experienced major changes in forest cover, social development and forest policy. Natural forests have shrunk dramatically and continue to be degraded and cleared at startling rates. Forest areas set aside for protection have increased. At the same time large areas of land and forest have been ‘converted’ to timber plantations and estate crops. During the same period, both for better and for worse, the forest peoples who inhabit these areas have also been through tumultuous changes.

    07 Poverty Reduction and Forests: Tenure, Market and Policy Reforms

    07 Poverty Reduction and Forests: Tenure, Market and Policy Reforms

    Proceedings of an International Conference

    Bob Fisher, Sango Mahanty, Cor Veer - RECOFTC, Rights and Resources

     

    A great deal of discussion in recent years has focused on the role of conservation, and more specifically, sustainable forest management, in contributing to poverty reduction. A number of conferences and workshops have picked up on this theme including the International Conference on Poverty Reduction and Forests: Tenure, Market and Policy Reforms. The importance of policies that support rights to forest resources and reforms to markets has been recognized as essential to enabling more effective contributions from forests to poverty reduction. Recognition of the need for such policy reforms led to the establishment of the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), a coalition of organizations working together to encourage greater global action on forest policy and market reforms, with the aim of increasing household and community ownership, control, and benefits from forests. RECOFTC and other RRI partners proposed this Conference because we recognize the need for exploring real experiences in connecting forest policy reforms and poverty reduction, both by giving positive examples and examining the constraints. The Conference provided a valuable opportunity to share the experiences from practitioners throughout the world, with cases from Asia and the Pacific, Africa, and Latin America. These proceedings contain selected papers from the Conference and convey much of the richness of the discussions in Bangkok. On behalf of RECOFTC and the RRI partners, we would like to congratulate the authors on their thoughtful contributions. We are sure that these proceedings will contribute to further discussion, policy reform, and other necessary action to ensure sustainable forest management reaches its potential to contribute to poverty reduction.

    A Legal Review and Analysis of China’s Forest Tenure System with an Emphasis on Collective Forestland

    A Legal Review and Analysis of China’s Forest Tenure System with an Emphasis on Collective Forestland

    Li Ping, Zhu Keliang - Rural Development Institute, Rights and Resources

     

    Based on extensive desk research and fieldwork in three provinces, this paper reviews and analyzes the development of the Chinese regulatory frameworks that govern forest tenure. Special attention is paid to farmers’ rights to collective forestland and forest products, and a particular focus is given to the current legal regime on farmers’ tenure rights to forestland.

    Conservation’s engagement with human rights: “traction”, “slippage”, or avoidance?

    Conservation’s engagement with human rights: “traction”, “slippage”, or avoidance?

    Janis Bristol Alcorn, Antoinette G. Royo

     

    Human rights (HR) have become a smoking-gun issue threatening conservation’s public legitimacy and long-term funding. Globally there are rising frustrations that large conservation non-governmental organizations (NGOs) do not seem to be collaborating with civil society movements promoting democratization. They rather appear to associate closely with governments and other actors with poor HR records. HR abuses or allegations of abuse that arise in conservation contexts include violation of due process, massive forcible resettlements, destruction of property and farms, torture, and extrajudicial killings. In addition, conservation agents are increasingly perceived as HR ‘duty bearers’ that do not fulfil their responsibilities. Many biodiversity hotspots overlap with poverty hotspots where HR abuses occur, and in such areas conservation organizations have an excellent opportunity to act towards addressing such abuses. Their responsibilities are guided by international and domestic law, yet their record of action is uneven. In some local cases, conservation agencies have demonstrated ‘traction’ in supporting HR. Evidence of ‘slippage’ and avoidance in assuming HR responsibilities, however, suggest that the biodiversity conservation community has yet to mature towards a commitment to HR, which would require systematic changes at multiple levels. This paper places unspoken issues on the table and encourages their open discussion, hoping to promote the positive changes essential for sustainable conservation.

    Organization and Governance for Fostering Pro-Poor Compensation for Environmental Services

    Organization and Governance for Fostering Pro-Poor Compensation for Environmental Services

    Carina Bracer, Sara Scherr, Augusta Molnar, Madhushree Sekher, Benson Owuor Ochieng, Gaya Sriskanthan - Forest Trends, Ecoagriculture Partners, Rights and Resources, Centre for Ecological Economics & Natural Resources, African Centre for Technology Studies (ACTS), IUCN

     

    To increase potential for pro-poor outcomes of CRES, the opportunity for local conditions to define the supporting institutional structures and norms that surround CRES is critical. There are a wide range of institutional models of CRES that can benefit the poor, and these tend to include features such as: building upon and strengthening existing institutions of the poor, allowing flexibility in land use options and in the timeframe for adoption and adaptation of land use, simplification of monitoring and reporting to fit local capacity, and orientation and training of intermediary organizations who serve as brokers to the poor and help them to aggregate supply of CRES services.

    Where in the world is there pro-poor forest policy and tenure reform?

    Where in the world is there pro-poor forest policy and tenure reform?

    Mary Hobley

     

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Rights and Resources Initiative with an analysis of the opportunities and threats to increasing pro-poor tenure and policy reforms in the global forest sector over the next decade. The analysis examines the international, national and local arenas and the drivers of change at these different levels. It questions the extent to which there is already pro-poor policy in place. It examines critically the nature of poverty as a basis from which to assess the extent to which changing ownership and access patterns are bringing greater livelihood security to the rural poor. It uses poverty as the starting point for looking at forest policy rather than looking at forestry and seeing how it can be made to accommodate a more pro-poor approach.

    Local forest-based enterprises

    Local forest-based enterprises

    Supporting the livelihoods of the poor?

    - Info Resources

     

    The development of local forest-based enterprises represents an opportunity for strengthening the livelihoods of poor, forest-dependent people, at the same time providing an economic incentive to conserve forests through sustainable management. Is this potential being put into practice?

    Where in the world is there pro-poor forest policy and tenure reform?

    Where in the world is there pro-poor forest policy and tenure reform?

    Mary Hobley

     

    Many countries are now recognizing community ownership and devolving forest responsibilities to local jurisdictions. This transition in ownership is both a response to rights-based movements to increase local ownership and access to forest resources and a strategic policy shift responding to the widespread failure of governments to avoid deforestation, control illegal activities or generate the desired equity of benefits under systems of state forest ownership and control. This transition varies from one country to another based on the biophysical, economic, social or historical reality. Yet there is much that one country and citizenry can learn from the experience of others regarding policy choices and the pace or strategy of reform.

    Concessions to Poverty: The environmental, social and economic impacts of industrial logging concessions in Africa’s rainforests.

    Concessions to Poverty: The environmental, social and economic impacts of industrial logging concessions in Africa’s rainforests.

    - The Rainforests Foundation, Forests Monitor

     

    This report addresses the issues surrounding sustainability and the impacts of the industrial logging concession system in several Central African countries and elsewhere. Based on the contributions of experts from various backgrounds (NGOs, research bodies, government organizations), the report aims to bring these issues to the attention of national decision-makers and international community representatives, highlighting the system’s pitfalls as well as the policy options available that could avert or remedy some of these problems.

    Exploring Fair Trade Timber: A Review of Issues in Current Practice, Institutional Structures and Ways Forward

    Exploring Fair Trade Timber: A Review of Issues in Current Practice, Institutional Structures and Ways Forward

    Duncan Macqueen, Annie Dufey, Bindi Patel - IIED

     

    The great expansion in community ownership and management of forests presents a historic opportunity. Communities now own or manage one fourth of the forests in developing countries. Certification, eco-labelling and social auditing have all been set up to improve the forest sector. High hopes for forest livelihoods and poverty reduction have surrounded their use but each has had its limitations. It is now time to examine other complementary instruments. Fair trade may be one such instrument. An alliance of institutions interested in promoting fair trade timber is beginning to form. This report outlines some of the options for building on this momentum and enhancing local returns from responsible forestry.

    Towards Wellbeing in Forest Communities

    Towards Wellbeing in Forest Communities

    a source book for local government

    - CIFOR

     

    Governments in many countries are decentralizing to give more control over decision-making and budgets to local administrators. Decentralization is especially significant to forest communities, which have historically benefited little from government services and poverty reduction programs. This source book was written for local governments and their partners who hope to respond to the needs of forest communities and improve their wellbeing.

    Poverty and Forests

    Poverty and Forests

    Multi-country analysis of spatial association and proposed policy solutions

    William D. Sunderlin, Sonya Dewi, Atie Puntodewo - CIFOR, World Agroforestry Centre, Rights and Resources

     

    This paper examines poverty and deforestation in developing countries as linked problems and focuses on policies that can favour poverty alleviation in forested regions. The paper encompasses two elements: analysis of the spatial coincidence between poverty and forests, and proposed policy options for reducing poverty in forested areas.

     

    Associated Documents

    Infobrief: Poverty and Forests Infobrief: Poverty and Forests

    Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
    Conserving What and for Whom? Why Conservation Should Help Meet Basic Human Needs in the Tropics

    Conserving What and for Whom? Why Conservation Should Help Meet Basic Human Needs in the Tropics

    David Kaimowitz, Douglas Sheil

     

    For hundreds of millions of people, biodiversity is about eating, staying healthy, and finding shelter. Meeting these people’s basic needs should receive greater priority in the conservation agenda.

    Wild and semi-wild plants and animals contribute significantly to nutrition, health care, income, and culture in developing countries, and the poorest and most vulnerable people often rely on those resources most. Depleting those resources or making them inaccessible can impoverish these people even further. ‘Pro-poor conservation’—that is, conservation that aims to support poor people—explicitly seeks to address basic human needs.

    Land

    Land

    Better access and secure rights for poor people

    - DFID

     

    This paper demonstrates the importance of land tenure in livelihoods and development, and outlines the British Department for International Development's approach to land issues. The document details that if land and property are clear and secure, they can help to boost economic growth, tackle inequality and reduce poverty.

    Natural Resource Tenure

    Natural Resource Tenure

    - SIDA

     

    This paper outlines Sida’s position on natural resource tenure and provides guidance for activities where tenure issues are at stake. Rather than providing solutions, the paper aims to support Sida staff and partners in their own analysis and dialogue, and in their development and implementation of policies and programmes.

    Compensation and Rewards for Environmental Services in the Developing World

    Compensation and Rewards for Environmental Services in the Developing World

    Framing Pan-Tropical Analysis and Comparison

    Brent Swallow, Mikkel Kallesoe, Usman Iftikhar, Meine van Noordwijk, Carina Bracer, Sara Scherr, K.V. Raju, Susan Poats, Anantha Duraiappah, Benson Ochieng, Hein Mallee, Rachel Rumley - World Agroforestry Centre, IUCN, Forest Trends, Ecoagriculture Partners, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Corporación Grupo Randi Randi, United Nations Environment Programme

     

    This introductory paper begins with a review of the recent historical development of compensation and reward mechanisms within a broader context of changing approaches to conservation and environmental policy. Conservation approaches have moved from a sole focus on protected areas, to integrated conservation and development projects, to landscape management approaches, and now, consideration of conservation contracts. At roughly the same time, there has been a general relaxation of government enforcement of environmental regulations towards more multi-stakeholder forms of governance in which non-governmental and international organizations play roles and a variety of market-based and negotiation approaches have come to the fore. That dynamic context is fostering greater interest in mechanisms for compensation and reward for environmental services in the developing regions of the world. Later sections of the paper clarify key concepts and present a conceptual framework for characterizing different types of mechanisms and the internal and external factors affecting those mechanisms. The penultimate section summarizes experience and perceptions of compensation and reward for environmental services. The concluding section postulates the alternative motivations that are shaping compensation and reward mechanisms in the developing world.

    The Conditions for Effective Mechanisms of Compensation and Rewards for Environmental Services

    The Conditions for Effective Mechanisms of Compensation and Rewards for Environmental Services

    Brent Swallow, Beria Leimona, Thomas Yatich, Sandra J. Velarde, S. Puttaswamaiah - World Agroforestry Centre

     

    This paper considers the conditions that determine the effectiveness of compensation and reward mechanisms. The paper takes deductive and inductive approaches to addressing the question. A series of 11 hypotheses are derived from theories of institutional change, environmental policy diffusion, and the co-dependence between different types of policy instruments. Eight case studies, all of which were considered at regional workshops on compensation for environmental services, are reviewed in the latter part of the paper. The cases, from Latin America, Africa and Asia, cover a range of environmental services and policy contexts. Overall the results suggest the following conditions to be important in many of the cases: (1) market opportunities and localized scarcity for particular environmental services; (2) international environmental agreements, international organizations, and international networks; (3) government policies and public attitudes toward government environmental responsibility, security of individual and group property rights, and markets; and (4) the strength of the regulatory regime affecting the environment.

    How important will different types of Compensation and Reward Mechanisms be in shaping poverty & ecosystem services across Africa, Asia & Latin America over the next two decades?

    How important will different types of Compensation and Reward Mechanisms be in shaping poverty & ecosystem services across Africa, Asia & Latin America over the next two decades?

    Sara J. Scherr, Jeffrey C. Milder, Carina Bracer - Ecoagriculture Partners, Cornell University , Forest Trends

     

    The development of Compensation and Rewards for Environmental Services (CRES) will have differential impact on poor resource managers and poor consumers depending upon the characteristics of the resource itself, the financial and other values for different beneficiaries, and the design of payment and market systems. In this early stage of CRES development, there are significant opportunities to shape that development in ways that will have greater benefits for the poor and for poverty reduction. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relative importance of different types of CRES in shaping poverty and ecosystem services across the developing world, as they are likely to evolve over the next two decades.

    Land and Resource Alienation in Cambodia

    Land and Resource Alienation in Cambodia

    Shalmali Guttal - Focus on the Global South

     

    Ask any Cambodian what s/he considers to be the foundation of society and life in Cambodia and the answer is likely to be “land.” As in most other places, land is an extremely important economic resource or asset in Cambodia. Land is livelihood. But equally, land is valued as an emblem of rootedness, belonging and stability, and is widely regarded as the very basis of social organisation in the country. Today, at least a third of Cambodia's peoples - rural and urban - are being systematically alienated from their lands, homes and livelihoods. In many instances communities are losing lands and access to natural resources because of economic and demographic pressures. But equally, people are being dispossessed from their lands by those with political power and money. This paper attempts to provide an overview of the growing crisis of land and resource alienation in Cambodia.

    Memperkokoh pengelolaan Hutan Indonesia

    Memperkokoh pengelolaan Hutan Indonesia

    Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Chip Fay - Forest Trends, World Agroforestry Centre

     

    The purpose of this analysis is to help policy makers and the many stakeholders in Indonesia develop a vision and a plan to advance tenure reforms and strengthen forest management systems. Its intention is to contribute to ongoing efforts to formulate a new paradigm for forest management in Indonesia. It focuses primarily on the fundamental question of the legal and biophysical rationale upon which the concept of the State Forest Zone is based. This analysis addresses the question of land ownership and sustainable forest resource management. It challenges the widely accepted view that the government, through the Department of Forestry, has jurisdiction over land administration within the Forest Zone. Bahasa version of November 2005 report, translated by the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF)

    Non Timber Forest Products

    Non Timber Forest Products

    between poverty alleviation and market forces

    Jean-Laurent Pfund, Patrick Robinson - Intercooperation

     

    Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) are increasingly recognized for their important roles in forest management around the world. While generally associated with protection, biodiversity and recreation in the North, NTFPs play significant roles for local communities in the South and East, including home consumption and production for local or regional markets. These articles draw on experiences from around the world to examine the relationship of NTFPs to development, poverty alleviation and conservation.

    Strengthening Forest Management in Indonesia through Land Tenure Reform

    Strengthening Forest Management in Indonesia through Land Tenure Reform

    Issues and Framework for Action

    Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Chip Fay - Forest Trends, World Agroforestry Centre

     

    The purpose of this analysis is to help policy makers and the many stakeholders in Indonesia develop a vision and a plan to advance tenure reforms and strengthen forest management systems. Its intention is to contribute to ongoing efforts to formulate a new paradigm for forest management in Indonesia. It focuses primarily on the fundamental question of the legal and biophysical rationale upon which the concept of the State Forest Zone is based. This analysis addresses the question of land ownership and sustainable forest resource management. It challenges the widely accepted view that the government, through the Department of Forestry, has jurisdiction over land administration within the Forest Zone.

    Poverty and Conservation Landscapes, People and Power

    Poverty and Conservation Landscapes, People and Power

    R.J. Fisher, Stewart Maginnis, W.J. Jackson, Edmund Barrow, Sally Jeanrenaud - IUCN

     

    Integrated approaches to conservation and development cannot promise perfect win-win solutions. Pure conservation-focused interventions seldom deliver perfect conservation outcomes either. It is time to look for the best possible outcomes, bearing in mind principles of equity. This implies genuine shared decision-making and participation by local communities in land-use decisions. Participatory decision-making involves the willingness of outsiders to negotiate land-use objectives and ways to meet those objectives.

    Forests in Landscapes: Ecosystem Approaches to Sustainability

    Forests in Landscapes: Ecosystem Approaches to Sustainability

    Jeffrey Sayer, Stewart Maginnis - IUCN, Earthscan

     

    Edited by Jeffrey Sayer and Stewart Maginnis. Throughout the world there has been a re-examination of who makes decisions about forests and how these decisions are made. Attempts have been made to establish a global regulatory framework for forests through existing and proposed intergovernmental agreements, principles and broadly-accepted criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management. In parallel there has been a strong tendency towards more participatory, localized decision-making.

    Recent Experience in Collaborative Forest Management

    Recent Experience in Collaborative Forest Management

    CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 43

    Jane Carter, Jane Gronow

     

    Collaborative forest management (CFM) is loosely defined as a working partnership between the key stakeholders in the management of a given forest—key stakeholders being local forest users and state forest departments, as well as parties such as local governments, civic groups and nongovernmental organisations, and the private sector. The paper reviews worldwide experience in CFM to date, considering the forms that it takes in different tenure situations. Overall, mechanisms of CFM are diversifying, reflecting a greater recognition of the need for partnerships in forest management.

    The role of informal institutions in the use of forest resources in Latin America

    The role of informal institutions in the use of forest resources in Latin America

    Pablo Pacheco, Deborah Barry, Peter Cronkleton, Anne M. Larson - CIFOR

     

    This study adopts an institutional approach to analyze the way in which informal rules, in their interaction with formal rules, shape the use of forest resources by diverse types of smallholders and communities (i.e., indigenous people, agro-extractive and traditional communities) in Latin America.

    Understanding the Chinese Forest Market and Its Global Implications

    Understanding the Chinese Forest Market and Its Global Implications

    Xu Jintao, Andy White

     

    Introduction from the special edition of the IFR on forestry in China

    Natural Wealth

    Natural Wealth

    A Study for Linking Poverty Reduction with Forest Conservation in Lao PDR

    Jason Morris, Emily Hicks, Andrew Ingles, Sounthone Ketphanh

     

    Recent studies have shown that rural villagers derive nearly half their income from the sale of NTFPs, including rattan, bamboo and yangtree oil. NTFPs also play a vital role in food security, particularly at the end of the dry season and during times of harvest failure. Forest tubers, bamboo shoots, mushrooms, a range of forest plants, fish, turtles and snails are all collected for food. In many parts of the lowland plains, fish and other living aquatic resources provide between 70 and 90 per cent of the animal protein in the diet of local people.

    Deeper Roots

    Deeper Roots

    Strengthening Community Tenure Security and Community Livelihoods

    Lynn Ellsworth, Andy White - Ford Foundation

     

    This paper highlights the distinct sets of actors who can become engaged in activities designed to improve tenure security; they include activists and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), public law groups, community development and training organizations, policy groups, and government agencies. The range of actions that they undertake include mapping and demarcating lands, mobilizing around their legalization, bringing suits in support of the residents on the lands, lobbying for legislative changes, and building the capacity of local groups to undertake many of these activities.

    A Place in the World

    A Place in the World

    A Review of the Global Debate on Tenure Security

    Lynn Ellsworth - Ford Foundation

     

    This paper illustrates that there is no single form of tenure, no particular pattern of property rights, that is uniquely associated with the most effective management of forest lands. In fact, underlying property ownership regimes have been changing continuously in most countries over long periods of time. Of particular importance is her assertion that the increasingly influential neoliberal property rights school of analysis “over-emphasizes” the virtues of property rights defined in terms of market trading. Effective markets for land are often nonexistent or flawed.

    Who Conserves the World's Forests?

    Who Conserves the World's Forests?

    Augusta Molnar, Sara J. Scherr, Arvind Khare - Forest Trends

     

    The dramatic and continued shift in forest and landscape boundaries and in tenure and customary rights, combined with emerging new markets for forest products and ecosystem services, creates new challenges as well as new opportunities for people and for forest conservation. Enabling communities to conserve implies new management approaches, new research models, new models of organization and capacity-building and new relations between local people and the state. But creating an enabling environment also has a large payoff, both in conservation and in community well-being.

     

    Associated Documents

    ¿Quién Conserva los Bosques del Mundo? ¿Quién Conserva los Bosques del Mundo?

    Augusta Molnar, Sara J. Scherr, Arvind Khare - Forest Trends, Ecoagriculture Partners
    A New Agenda for Forest Conservation and Poverty Reduction

    A New Agenda for Forest Conservation and Poverty Reduction

    Making Markets Work for Low-Income Producers

    Sara J. Scherr, Andy White, David Kaimowitz - IUCN, Forest Trends, CIFOR

     

    The future of the world's forests and the future of millions of the world's poorest people are inextricably linked. The dominant models of forest management and protection are increasingly inappropriate in the face of this reality. A fundamental re-assessment of the role of forests in rural development, and the role of local people in forest conservation, is urgently needed.

    Who Owns the World's Forests?

    Who Owns the World's Forests?

    Andy White, Alejandra Martin - Forest Trends

     

    This growing global recognition of the importance of property rights is mirrored by longstanding preoccupation with rights issues at local levels. The questions of who owns the forests, who claims them, who has access to them and further, who should own them, are hotly contested in many forest regions of the world. These are often the primary concerns of local people most directly dependent on forest resources.

    A Survey of Indigenous Land Tenure

    A Survey of Indigenous Land Tenure

    A Report for the Land Tenure Service of the Food and Agricultural Organization

    Marcus Colchester, Fergus MacKay, Tom Griffiths, John Nelson - Forest Peoples Programme

     

    This study provides a concise overview of the information available on the land rights of indigenous peoples, with a focus on those in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Successive chapters summarise the rights of indigenous peoples in international law and then examine how these rights are being recognised, or not, in Latin America, Africa and the Asia-Pacific. A final chapter reviews the findings of the survey and identifies key issues to be considered in making policy decisions about indigenous land rights.