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  • What Future for Reform?
    Rights and Resources Initiative et al
  • RRI Analyses

    RRI Global Programs 2014 Workplan

    RRI Global Programs 2014 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    The Global Programs Workplan for 2014 was developed by RRG in collaboration with Partners and Collaborators. The fifth annual Regional and Global Programs Planning Meeting was convened along with the Regional Planning Meeting in Washington, DC in November 2013. During that meeting RRG staff met with Partners and RRI Fellows to discuss and define strategies, activities and points of collaboration for 2014.

    RRI Africa 2014 Workplan

    RRI Africa 2014 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Analysis and Strategy for 2014 organized by region and country.

    RRI Latin America 2014 Workplan

    RRI Latin America 2014 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Strategy and analysis for 2014 by country and region.

    RRI Asia 2014 Workplan

    RRI Asia 2014 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Strategy and analysis for 2014 by country and region.

    What Future for Reform?

    What Future for Reform?

    Progress and slowdown in forest tenure reform since 2002

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    Who owns the world’s forests, and who decides on their governance? The answers to these questions are still deeply contested. To many Indigenous Peoples and local communities who have lived in and around forests for generations, the forests belong to them, under locally defined systems of customary tenure. In most countries, however, governments have claimed ownership of much of the forest estate through historical processes of expropriation, and those claims have been formalized in statutory laws. While governments are increasingly recognizing local ownership and control of forests, forest tenure arrangements remain in dispute or unclear in many places, including low, middle, and high income countries.

    Status of Forest Carbon Rights and Implications for Communities, the Carbon Trade, and REDD+ Investments

    Status of Forest Carbon Rights and Implications for Communities, the Carbon Trade, and REDD+ Investments

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    The Warsaw Framework on REDD+ adopted by Parties to the UNFCCC in November 2013 paves the way for payments to flow to developing countries for carbon emissions reductions from forests. The new framework encourages countries to set up a national entity or designated focal point for REDD+, which will be eligible to receive financing to implement REDD+ activities and strategies. The climate community has generally welcomed this decision as a landmark achievement, although there has been some criticism regarding the lack of a mechanism to implement social and environmental safeguards to protect the rights of local peoples.

    Lots of Words, Little Action

    Lots of Words, Little Action

    Will the private sector tip the scales for community land rights?

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    The annual review of the state of rights and resources 2013-2014.

     

    Associated Documents

    Statu Quo Statu Quo
    Le secteur privé changera-t-il la donne en faveur des droits fonciers communautaires ?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Muchas Palabras, Poca Acción Muchas Palabras, Poca Acción
    ¿Inclinará el sector privado la balanza a favor de los derechos a la tierra de las comunidades?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    RRI Strategic Priorities for 2014

    RRI Strategic Priorities for 2014

    - RRI

     

    RRI strategic priorities for 2014. Includes overarching priorities, strategic analysis, networking support, communications and outreach, strategic initiatives, country and regional initiatives, coalition coordination, and operations.

    Global Capital, Local Concessions

    Global Capital, Local Concessions

    A Data-Driven Examination of Land Tenure Risk and Industrial Concessions in Emerging Market Economies

    - Prepared for the Rights and Resources Initiative by The Munden Project

     

    Using geospatial data from 12 emerging market economies (EMEs), this analysis attempts to guide investors in emerging markets by shedding light on a difficult problem: overlapping land claims that diminish the value and viability of industrial concessions. It refers to this as “land tenure risk”. From these datasets and an examination of research and financial information, the report concludes that land tenure risk is a statistically significant source of risk in EME concession investments, and extends across all land-dependent sectors regardless of concession type.

    RRI's Rationale for Engagement in Countries

    RRI's Rationale for Engagement in Countries

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This document describes the rationale for RRI's engagement in 17 developing countries around the world.

    RRI Annual Progress Report 2012

    RRI Annual Progress Report 2012

    - RRI

     

    This annual progress report is prepared in accordance with the integrated reporting framework agreed to by donors to the Rights and Resources Initiative framework proposal, titled "Accelerating reforms in forest tenure and governance to meet priority global challenges: strategic analysis, narratives and networks to advance local rights and development."

    RRI Africa 2013 Workplan

    RRI Africa 2013 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Analysis and Strategy for 2013 organized by region and country.

    RRI Asia 2013 Workplan

    RRI Asia 2013 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Strategy and Analysis for 2013 by country and region.

    RRI Latin America 2013 Workplan

    RRI Latin America 2013 Workplan

    - RRI

     

    Strategy and analysis for 2013 by country and region.

    RRI Strategic Priorities for 2013

    RRI Strategic Priorities for 2013

    - RRI

     

    RRI strategic priorities for 2013. Includes overarching priorities, strategic analysis, networking support, communications and outreach, strategic initiatives, country and regional initiatives, coalition coordination, and operations.

    Impacto de las Industrias Extractivas en los Derechos Colectivos sobre Territorios y Bosques de los Pueblos y las Comunidades

    Impacto de las Industrias Extractivas en los Derechos Colectivos sobre Territorios y Bosques de los Pueblos y las Comunidades

    Margarita Flórez - Rights and Resources Initiative, A s o c i a c i ó n A m b i e n t e y S o c i e d a d

     

    En este trabajo se recopilan y analizan algunos aspectos del impacto de las industrias extractivas. Se hace énfasis en la minería dado su aumento en intensidad, cantidad y cobertura en las dos últimas décadas, particularmente sobre territorios de los Pueblos Indígenas y Afrodescendientes que habitan en zonas objeto de las actividades de esta industria. Así mismo se estudian las repercusiones sobre los bosques naturales.

     

    Associated Documents

    Investments into the Agribusiness, Extractive, and Infrastructure Sectors of Liberia

    Investments into the Agribusiness, Extractive, and Infrastructure Sectors of Liberia

    An Overview

    D. Bryson Ogden - Rights and Resources Group

     

    This paper seeks to characterize and quantify the regional investment trends of organizations investing in Liberian agribusiness, infrastructure, and extractive industries, to better understand their roles in land acquisition as related to deforestation and human rights. Though the methodology is here applied to Liberia, the same analysis will be applied to other countries including Cameroon, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Colombia, and Peru.

    Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in West and Central Africa

    Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in West and Central Africa

    A Preliminary Assessment of Progress Made Since the Yaoundé 2009 Conference

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This policy brief looks at land and forest tenure reforms in West and Central Africa. It uses the recommendations from the 2009 International Conference in Yaoundé on Forest Tenure, Governance, and Enterprise as its points of reference, particularly those calling on Central and West African states, and regional and sub-regional institutions to initiate or accelerate reforms to statutory tenure systems that would lead to the “legal recognition of community owned forests” or the “doubling of land areas under community ownership” by 2015.

    Social and Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Africa

    Social and Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Africa

    With a Focus on West and Central Africa

    Michael Richards, Consultant - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This study focuses on the reported (as opposed to predicted or likely) social and environmental impacts of large-scale land transactions in Africa, with a focus on West and Central Africa. The core of the report is an analysis of 18 case studies that are among the best-documented LSLAs in terms of their impacts. These case studies cover Cameroon, Ghana, Liberia, Mali, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. Impacts were classified into five groups: tenure impacts, land governance process and impacts, economic and livelihood impacts, human and sociocultural impacts, and environmental impacts.

     

    Associated Documents

    Impacts sociaux et environnementaux des acquisitions de terres à grande échelle destinées à l’agriculture en Afrique, en particulier en Afrique occidentale et centrale

    Impacts sociaux et environnementaux des acquisitions de terres à grande échelle destinées à l’agriculture en Afrique, en particulier en Afrique occidentale et centrale

    Michael Richards, Consultant - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    La présente étude porte sur les impacts sociaux et environnementaux relevés, par opposition aux impacts prévus ou probables, des transactions de terres à grande échelle (ATGE) en Afrique, avec une attention particulière à l’Afrique occidentale et centrale (AOC). L’élément central du rapport repose sur une analyse de 18 études de cas qui sont parmi les ATGE les mieux documentées en termes d’impacts. Cependant, ces études ne constituent pas un échantillon représentatif. Les 18 études de cas concernent le Cameroun, le Ghana, le Libéria, le Mali, le Rwanda, le Sénégal et la Sierra Leone en AOC, et le Mozambique, la Tanzanie et la Zambie en Afrique de l’Est.

     

    Associated Documents

    Landowners or Laborers

    Landowners or Laborers

    What choice will developing countries make?

    RRI

     

    During 2012, a key choice facing developing countries revealed itself ever more starkly. Would they choose a development path built on inclusiveness, respect for the rights of their citizens, and the rule of law? Or would they seek a short-cut to development and opt to hand over community land and natural resources to international investors and national elites? Would they turn their rural citizens from landowners into landless laborers? It became clear during the year that many countries were desperate to replicate the recent economic successes of China and Brazil. Many are tired of being poor and are eager to see their economies grow quickly. Countries of sub-Saharan Africa aspire to be “lion economies,” following in the footsteps of Asia’s “tiger economies.” But the parallels are poor. Brazil, China, and Asia’s tigers drove economic development by liberating local enterprises and establishing local property rights. In Africa, nations have surrendered economic and political control of their land and resources, in effect, replicating economic systems created during the colonial era driven by resource extraction and export. The lesson of history is clear. The inequalities and disempowerment resulting from these extractive political and economic systems are replicating the “resource curse,” in which nations become trapped in poverty and are riven by resentment and internal conflict, with growing risks of political turmoil. If countries choose open and inclusive democratic systems they can avoid this fate. But they will need to recognize local property rights and develop strong civil societies that keep citizens informed and hold leaders to account.1 RRI’s annual review of forest tenure data highlights the different choices made by forest countries over the past decade. Some have chosen to make progressive changes to their forest ownership systems. Yet, others have stagnated and avoided recognizing the full rights of forest-dwelling citizens. In 2012, some developing countries took the first steps to embrace such reforms, but many remain on the wrong track. All face major decisions about what type of country they will become. As we look to 2013, we ask: will countries around the developing world choose to be societies of citizen landowners or landless laborers?

     

    Associated Documents

    Propietarios o trabajadores sin tierras Propietarios o trabajadores sin tierras
    ¿En qué convertirán los países en desarrollo a las poblaciones rurales?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Propriétaires fonciers ou paysans sans terre Propriétaires fonciers ou paysans sans terre
    Quel choix feront les pays en voie de développement ?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    The Financial Risks of Insecure Land Tenure

    The Financial Risks of Insecure Land Tenure

    An Investment View

    The Munden Project

     

    In recent years, one of the oldest asset classes in investment – land – has become an issue of international concern and scrutiny. Land acquisitions are being announced at a breakneck pace as companies look to produce more food, wood fiber, minerals and energy. The undeniably high and sustained profit potential of this land is thought to be offset by meager, manageable costs. Not only is the land itself cheap, but the ongoing outlays required to convert that land’s output into saleable goods is quite low. This all seems very compelling when confined to spreadsheets, but as these acquisitions become more common, we are beginning to see substantive discrepancies between investment concept and operational practice. In examining the evidence, a pattern emerges. Many investors and operators have committed time, money and effort without understanding some considerable risks, ones usually considered externalities in the normal course of business. This report gives perspective on one such risk. Completely unknown to most investors, “land tenure” is a catch-all phrase used by field specialists to define a set of problems related to control over a given parcel of land. Property rights in many emerging markets are dysfunctional to the point that ownership of land can be granted to an investor without the tens of thousands of people living on, or dependent on, that land knowing about it. This report shows that unresolved conflicts over land tenure significantly augment the financial risks for companies in infrastructure, mining, agriculture and forestry. By themselves, delays caused by land tenure problems can inflate a project's expenditures by an order of magnitude - and in some cases these losses have even been great enough to endanger the future of the corporate parent itself.

    Ensuring that Poor Rural Women Benefit from Forestland Reforms in China

    Ensuring that Poor Rural Women Benefit from Forestland Reforms in China

    Fieldwork Findings and Policy Recommendations

    - Rights and Resources Initiative, Landesa RDI

     

    China has engaged in forestland tenure reform since the 1980s, focusing primarily on decentralizing forestland use rights from the collective to households. However, in over 30 years of reform measures, little attention has been paid to the effects of forestland reform on rural women. This research, conducted by Landesa and funded by RRI, aims to understand the impacts of these reforms as they relate to gender, and their implications for rural women in China.

    Deeper Roots of Historical Injustice

    Deeper Roots of Historical Injustice

    Trends and Challenges in the Forests of India

    - Rights and Resources Initiative, IDRC

     

    This book is a compilation of research and analyses from some of the leading scholars and experts on the Indian forest sector. Their analyses take a critical look at the trends that have shaped the developments in India's forest sector over the past two decades. They analyze key actors, institutions, laws, policies and politics--and unravel the interplay between the factors that influence the direction of economic development and industrialization as well as conservation models; determine the nature and scope of civil rights; and sway policy.

    Undemocratic and Arbitrary

    Undemocratic and Arbitrary

    Control, Regulation and Expropriation of India’s Forest and Common Lands

    - Society for Promotion of Wasteland Development, Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    Control over land and natural resources has recently become a subject of heated debate in India, and is, today, one of the central fault lines of Indian politics. A compendium of case studies on takeover of common lands in India was prepared for the Society for Promotion of Wasteland Development (SPWD) in order to attempt to fill the gap in the available literature on the subject of land takeover in the country. It represents one of the first attempts to look at this issue at the national level, drawing together local situations and experiences into an overall legal and policy framework. This paper seeks both to present a synthesis of the findings of these studies, reflecting the overall situation at the national level, as well as to discuss possible policy actions that can be undertaken.

     

    Associated Documents

    India's Forest and Common Lands India's Forest and Common Lands
    Policy Recommendations for Regulating Control and Minimizing Abuse
    - SPWD, Rights and Resources Initiative
    Securing rights through commodity roundtables?

    Securing rights through commodity roundtables?

    A comparative review

    Sophie Chao, Marcus Colchester, Norman Jiwan

     

    Commodities dominate agricultural production, land use and acquisition, and economic livelihoods across the developing world. Yet commodity production remains one of the greatest challenges for sustainable and equitable economic development, poverty reduction and global environmental stewardship, whether in terms of preventing biodiversity loss, reducing environmental pollution, addressing climate change, promoting rural development, or strengthening governance, land tenure and law enforcement.

    A Case for Farmers and Rural Communities’ Right to Compensation Under China’s Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP)

    A Case for Farmers and Rural Communities’ Right to Compensation Under China’s Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP)

    - Landesa-RDI, Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This paper was authored by Zhu Keliang of Landesa-RDI, in collaboration with RRI. It offers recommendations to reform the policy, law and institutional practices concerning China’s Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP) which, if not improved, will result in a massive scale of injustice and poverty in rural China, and jeopardize its own long-term success in ecosystem preservation.

    African Women's Rights to Forests

    African Women's Rights to Forests

    Gender in Forest management and Policy in Central and West Africa

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    These are four policy briefs in a suite of analyses undertaken by RRI’s Africa Program, focusing on gender equity and women’s rights in forest and land policy in Central and West Africa. The analyses focuses on four countries: Mali, Cameroon, Burkina Faso and Liberia. They summarize longer studies carried out by RRI Collaborators IUCN, Foundation for Community Initiatives and Cameroon Ecology.

    Les droits forestiers des femmes africaines

    Les droits forestiers des femmes africaines

    Les questions de genre dans la politique et la gestion forestières en Afrique Centrale et de l'Ouest

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    These are four policy briefs in a suite of analyses undertaken by RRI’s Africa Program, focusing on gender policy and women’s rights in forest and land policy in Central and West Africa. The analyses focuses on four countries: Mali, Cameroon, Burkina Faso and Liberia. They summarize longer studies carried out by RRI collaborators IUCN and Cameroon Ecology.

    The Complete Handbook on Pitsawing in Liberia

    The Complete Handbook on Pitsawing in Liberia

    - Association of Environmental Lawyers of Liberia (Green Advocates), Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This Handbook is not intended to proliferate the number of pitsawyers but to contribute to responsible pitsawing that respects established regulations in the forestry sector as well as to ensure personal security of all pitsawyers and users of chainsaw anywhere.

    The Challenges of Securing Women’s Tenure and Leadership for Forest Management

    The Challenges of Securing Women’s Tenure and Leadership for Forest Management

    The Asian Experience

    Marlène Buchy, Kalpana Giri, Joan Jamisolamin, Mia Siscawati, Avi Mahaningtyas, Jeannette Gurung, Abidah Billah Setyowati, Xiaobei Wang, Naomi Basik, Apsara Chapagain , Cécile Ndjebet

     

    New research released by the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) at the International Workshop on Gender and Forest Tenure in Asia and Collective Forest Tenure Reform in China shows that despite more understanding, more resources, and policy recommendations, women continue to be largely marginalized and ignored or exploited in community based resource management processes throughout Asia. This research provides the most comprehensive continent wide analysis on the status of forest tenure rights and gender rights.

     

    Associated Documents

    Gender in Forest Tenure Gender in Forest Tenure
    Prerequisite for Sustainable Forest Management in Nepal- Brief 1 of 4
    Kalpana Giri
    Gender Justice Gender Justice
    Forest Tenure and Forest Governance in Indonesia - Brief 3 of 4
    Mia Siscawati, Avi Mahaningtyas
    Re-envisioning REDD+ Re-envisioning REDD+
    Gender, Forest Governance and REDD+ in Asia - Brief 4 of 4
    Jeannette Gurung, Abidah Billah Setyowati
    Spotlight on Gender: Ensuring Poor Rural Women Benefit from Forestland Reform in China Spotlight on Gender: Ensuring Poor Rural Women Benefit from Forestland Reform in China
    Summary of Field Research and Policy Recommendations
    Xiaobei Wang - Landesa-RDI
    What Rights?

    What Rights?

    A Comparative Analysis of Developing Countries’ National Legislation on Community and Indigenous Peoples’ Forest Tenure Rights

    RRI

     

    This report presents a legal analysis of the national legislation that relates to Indigenous Peoples' and communities' forest tenure rights at a global scale by assessing whether the legal systems of 27 of the most forested developing countries of the world recognize the rights of Indigenous Peoples and communities to access, withdraw, manage, exclude and alienate to forest resources and land. The countries included in this study are home to 2.2 billion rural people and include approximately 75% of the forests in the developing world.

     

    Associated Documents

    ¿Cuáles Derechos? ¿Cuáles Derechos?
    Un análisis comparativo de la legislación nacional de los países en vías de desarrollo relacionada a los derechos de tenencia de los bosques de los Pueblos Indígenas y de las comunidades locales
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Quels droits de tenure forestière pour les communautés locales et les populations autochtones? Quels droits de tenure forestière pour les communautés locales et les populations autochtones?
    Analyse comparative des législations nationales dans plusieurs pays en voie de développement
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Respecting Rights, Delivering Development

    Respecting Rights, Delivering Development

    Forest Tenure Reform since Rio 1992

    Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    Over the twenty years since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro set sustainable development as a key global objective, Indigenous Peoples and local community management of forests has proven to be one major area of progress among the many unmet goals and aspirations. This report takes stock of that progress and presents new finding as well as examples from China, Brazil, India, Nepal, Cameroon and Mexico. The amount of forest recognized as owned or controlled by Indigenous Peoples and forest communities has increased from 10 to 15% globally and from 21 to 31% of developing country forests. The amount of legislation recognizing or strengthening local peoples’ forest and land rights have also increased dramatically - with over 50 new laws since 1992 recognizing tenure rights of forest communities and Indigenous Peoples. And a new slate of rigorous research makes clear that the recognition of rights results in strong, positive impacts in social, economic and environmental terms – delivering on the global goals of sustainable development. Where Indigenous Peoples’ and local community rights are recognized territories and community-managed forests have outperformed public protected areas in preventing deforestation and ensuring conservation. They have also proven more effective than state controlled forests in sequestering carbon and increasing household incomes. And clear property rights for local people have played a central role in enabling countries to achieve national-level forest restoration. The recognition of rights has also clearly played a key role in saving and strengthening many Indigenous Peoples and forest communities – helping prevent the further loss of the unique human and cultural expressions that is not only worthy of celebration on their own, but central to achieving any definition of development.

     

    Associated Documents

    Les droits de tenure au service du développement Les droits de tenure au service du développement
    Quel bilan depuis les engagements pris pendant le Sommet de Rio de 1992
    - L’Initiative des Droits et Ressources
    Respeitar Direitos, Concretizar Desenvolvimento Respeitar Direitos, Concretizar Desenvolvimento
    Reformas da posse florestal desde a Rio 1992
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Respetando Los Derechos, Proporcionando Desarrollo Respetando Los Derechos, Proporcionando Desarrollo
    Reformas en la tenencia forestal a partir de Río 1992
    - La Iniciativa para los Derechos y Recursos (RRI)
    RRI Framework Agreement for 2013-2017

    RRI Framework Agreement for 2013-2017

    Accelerating Reforms in Forest Rights, Governance, and Markets to Meet Global Challenges to Reduce Poverty, Conflict and Climate Change

    - Rights and Resources Initiative

     

    This is RRI's proposed and agreed-upon action framework for 2013-2017.

     

    Associated Documents

    Turning Point

    Turning Point

    What future for forest peoples and resources in the emerging world order?

    - RRG

     

    This report takes stock of the current status of forest rights and tenure globally, assesses the key issues and events of 2011 that shape possibilities to improve local rights and livelihoods, and identifies key questions and challenges that the world will face in 2012 and beyond.

     

    Associated Documents

    Titik Balik Titik Balik
    Bagaimana masa depan masyarakat dan sumberdaya hutan dalam tatanan dunia yang sedang tumbuh?
    - Rights and Resources Initiative
    Rights to Resources in Crisis

    Rights to Resources in Crisis

    Reviewing the Fate of Customary Tenure in Africa

    Liz Alden Wily

     

    This five brief series, written by panelist Liz Alden Wily, analyzes the roots of African land tenure systems, recent policy trends and puts the phenomenon of large scale land acquisitions in rich historical context.

    Les Droits aux Ressources en Crise

    Les Droits aux Ressources en Crise

    État des Lieux de la Tenure Coutumière en Afrique

    Liz Alden Wily

     

    L’objectif de cette série de cinq essais est d’informer et d’aider à structurer le plaidoyer et les actions contestant la faiblesse juridique des droits fonciers coutumiers dans de nombreux pays africains.

    The Challenges of Growing with Complexity

    The Challenges of Growing with Complexity

    Mid-Term Evaluation of the Rights and Resources Initiative

    The Mountain Institute

     

    The Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI)1 was established in 2005 as a coalition of organizational partners to promote local people‟s rights over forest resources and reduce poverty. It has been led by an active secretariat, established as the Rights and Resources Group (RRG), and guided by a prominent Board that included Partner and independent members. In January 2008, a Framework Proposal developed in coordination with partners and donors was adopted to provide strategic direction and enable common funding and reporting for a five-year period through 2012. A pool of European Bilateral donors and US Foundations has generously funded this proposal with approximately $27 million of committed funds to date.2 This mid-term evaluation (MTE) is mandated by the RRI Framework agreement. The research has been carried out over the period of March to July, 2011, by an independent international team of The Mountain Institute (TMI) recruited through a competitive process.3 The results of the MTE are based on over 110 interviews, email responses and questionnaires. The team conducted face to face interviews in Nepal, China, Thailand, UK, Norway, Cameroon, Mali, Bolivia, Peru and Washington, DC.

    Rights and Resources Initiative 2011 Independent Monitor's Report

    Rights and Resources Initiative 2011 Independent Monitor's Report

    Kevin Murray - Kevin Murray Strategic Consulting

     

    During 2011, the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) supported its fourth Independent Monitoring (IM) exercise. Given that the organization had just completed a Mid-Term Review, the IM exercise was less ambitious than in previous years. It focused on validating RRG’s reported progress toward realizing the Initiative’s Strategic Outcomes, and it also reviewed RRI’s implementation of its internal monitoring and evaluation system.

    La tenure foncière et forestière en République démocratique du Congo [RDC] : Une question critique, des vues centrifuges.

    La tenure foncière et forestière en République démocratique du Congo [RDC] : Une question critique, des vues centrifuges.

    Revue compréhensive de la littérature

    Oyono, Phil René

     

    Les lectures longitudinales et synchroniques de la question de la tenure foncière et forestière en RD Congo sont, ouvertement, centrifuges: cet éclatement idéologique est un aliment pour la science, l’actionpublique, l’intervention et le pluralisme. Pour des raisons méthodologiques, nous parlerons davantage de la « tenure foncière » dans la plus grande partie de cet essai. Ce choix conceptuel s’explique par le fait que la plus grande portion de la littérature considérée dans cette revue ne traite, jusqu’à une date récente, que de la « tenure foncière ». Le concept de « tenure forestière » n’apparaît que plus tard, dans ce qu’il convient d’appeler la littérature « post-décentralisation » concentrée sur cette question depuis les années 2000 (Oyono et Lelo Nzuzi 2006). Nous allons donc nous accommoder du concept de « tenure foncière », ou de la synonymie induite, en dépit des différenciations qui peuvent exister entre « tenure foncière » et « tenure forestière ».

    Unlocking the Potential of Forests through Tenure Reform

    Unlocking the Potential of Forests through Tenure Reform

    Key messages and recommendations from the International Conference on Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: Experiences and Opportunities for Asia in a Changing Context

    - RRI, ITTO, Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, Indonesian CSO Groups

     

    Under the distinguished patronage of the Government of Indonesia, the International Conference on Forest Tenure, Governance and Enterprise: Experiences and Opportunities for Asia in a Changing Context took place at the Santosa Villas and Resort, Lombok, Indonesia. The conference was organized by the Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia, the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), with the support of 20 other organizations, including the Global Alliance of Community Forestry (GACF). The opening ceremony was presided by Vice President Boediono and attended by Zulkifli Hassan, Minister of Forestry; Mohammad Nuh, Minister of Education; Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, Minister and Chair of the President’s Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight; TGH. M. Zainul Majdi, Governor of West Nusa Tenggara Province; Emmanuel Ze Meka, Executive Director of ITTO; Hedar Laujeng, Chair of the Community Chamber of Indonesia’s National Forest Council; and Andy White, Coordinator of the Rights and Resources Initiative. About 300 participants composed of experts from Indonesia and other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Fiji, India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam), from Europe (Italy, Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom), Africa (Cameroon, Kenya, Liberia), the Americas (Bolivia, Brazil, Guatemala, Nicaragua, United States), regional organizations (RECOFTC, REFACOF, Samdhana Institute), and international organizations (FAO, GACF, ICRAF, ITTO, RRI, TRAFFIC, UNFF, WRI), representatives of governments, civil society, local communities, traditional authorities, elected officials, and donors (Ford Foundation/Climate and Land Use Alliance, GIZ, EU-EFI FLEGT Asia, JICA, UK Climate Change Unit) took part in this important gathering, worked together to create, and have agreed upon the attached key messages and recommendations from the conference.

    PUSHBACK

    PUSHBACK

    Local Power, Global Realignment

    - Rights and Resources

     

    If 2009 was the end of the hinterland and the beginning of a new globalized forest era, 2010 was a year of pushback. Worldwide, the news was full of reports of forest communities and Indigenous Peoples pushing back at land grabs and shaping policy at the national and global levels, and of governments countering and trying to contain community rights. Some governments and private investors accepted or even embraced the new players at the table and began to promote fairer business and conservation models. There was also new soaring rhetoric about the centrality of tenure reform to efforts addressing climate change. Unfortunately, none of this added up to significant global progress in the recognition of local land and resource rights.

    As we look ahead to 2011, we see higher risks of climate-driven disaster, food insecurity, and political upheaval, and a world realigning. Yet, at the same time, shifts in markets, technology and policy offer tremendous opportunity, and 2011 offers more potential than ever to advance the rights and livelihoods of forest communities. With multilateral arrangements weak and wobbly, the arena for action has shifted to the national level. Will the rhetoric on rights be matched by recognition on the ground? Now that Indigenous Peoples and forest communities have more seats at the table, will they be allowed to speak and, if they are, will they be listened to? Who will ally with forest communities and help them advance their own aspirations and, more important, who will the forest communities choose as allies?

    This report takes stock of the current status of forest rights and tenure globally, assesses the key issues and events of 2010 that shape possibilities to improve local rights and livelihoods, and identifies key questions and challenges that the world will face in 2011.

     

    Associated Documents

    Resistencia y Transformación Social Resistencia y Transformación Social
    Poder Local, Realineamiento Global
    - Rights and Resources
    Penolakan Penolakan
    Kekuatan Lokal, Penataan Ulang Dunia
    - Rights and Resources
    Résistances Résistances
    Pouvoirs Locaux, Réajustements Mondiaux
    - Rights and Resources
    INDIA: Tribal Movements Score Historic Victory Against Multinational Corporation

    INDIA: Tribal Movements Score Historic Victory Against Multinational Corporation

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment.

    KENYA: New Constitution Ushers in Women’s Land Rights

    KENYA: New Constitution Ushers in Women’s Land Rights

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    COLOMBIA: Court Suspends Militarized Mining Operations on Afro-Descendant Lands

    COLOMBIA: Court Suspends Militarized Mining Operations on Afro-Descendant Lands

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    MALI: Farmers Resist Land Deals – “Le Mali n’est pas à Vendre”

    MALI: Farmers Resist Land Deals – “Le Mali n’est pas à Vendre”

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    CHINA: Whither CSR? Illegal Forest Land Grab Shows Limits of Voluntary Standards

    CHINA: Whither CSR? Illegal Forest Land Grab Shows Limits of Voluntary Standards

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    INDONESIA: Civil Society Platform for Safeguarding Community Rights in RED

    INDONESIA: Civil Society Platform for Safeguarding Community Rights in RED

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    UNITED STATES: Recognizing First Peoples, Past Wrongs, and UNDRIP – But Action Needed to Match Words

    UNITED STATES: Recognizing First Peoples, Past Wrongs, and UNDRIP – But Action Needed to Match Words

    PUSHBACK report excerpt

    Rights and Resources Group

     

    Case study excerpt from PUSHBACK: Local Power, Global Realignment

    Rights and Resources Initiative Informational Brochure

    Rights and Resources Initiative Informational Brochure

    RRI

     

    Rights and Resources Initiative Informational Brochure in English. Learn more about RRI, our Partners and the work that we do.

    Community Based Forest Management

    Community Based Forest Management

    The Extent and Potential Scope of Community and Smallholder Forest Management and Enterprises

    Augusta Molnar, Marina France, Lopaka Purdy, Jonathan Karver - Rights and Resources Group

     

    CBFEs are truly local institutions; this is one of the reasons for the diversity of models on which they are based. It is also a reason why, as a development strategy, they bypass many of the costs and hurdles other development initiatives face in implementation. Created on the ground by local actors, they are well adapted to local social, cultural, and economic conditions and landscapes. Unlike large export- and commodity-driven business models, CBFEs are intrinsically tied to the communities in which they operate. They therefore provide local communities with many vital opportunities: local employment and revenue, sustainable production and trade of required goods and services, and wealth that stays within the community. To maximize the potential of community-based forest management and CBFEs, concerted action is needed on the part of governments to create a level playing field for communities and smallholders in fiscal policy and regulations, access to technical and financial services, and the marketplace. In many developing countries, CBFEs and other SMFEs are often relegated by statutory law and regulation to an informal economy and a ‘shadow’ marketplace in which they are unable to realize their natural competitiveness.

    DRC Scoping Mission

    DRC Scoping Mission

    Opportunities in the Current Forest and Land Tenure Landscape

    Paul De Wit - RRI

     

    DRC Scoping Mission: Opportunities in the Current Forest and Land Tenure Landscape

    Mission de Cadrage en RDC

    Mission de Cadrage en RDC

    Opportunités dans le contexte actuel de la foncière et forestière pour fiare progresser les droits de tenure communautaires

    Paul De Wit - RRI

     

    Mission de Cadrage en RDC: Opportunités dans le contexte actuel de la foncière et forestière pour fiare progresser les droits de tenure communautaires

    A Case Study on Large-Scale Forestland Acquisition in China

    A Case Study on Large-Scale Forestland Acquisition in China

    The Stora Enso Plantation Project in Hepu County, Guangxi Province

    Li Ping, Robin Nielsen - Rural Development Institute

     

    This study examines the case of one FDI made by Stora Enso with International Finance Corporation support in forestland plantations in Guangxi, China. Stora Enso is a company which explicitly adheres to CSR principles and committed to gaining Forest Stewardship Council certification by 2007. The study was prompted by prior field visits by Rural Development Institute (RDI) and Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) staff in April of 2006 which identified irregularities in the respect of local rights and the implementation of China’s land laws. RRI and RDI informed Stora Enso of these irregularities and risk of conflict at that time. In 2009 there were a series of conflicts between farmers and Stora Enso’s Chinese partners in Hepu of Guangxi over the compensation these farmers received for the land acquired by Stora Enso in 2009. This study was conducted between December 2009 and June 2010 by a team of legal experts from the Rural Development Institute, a highly respected international research organization on land rights with a strong history of research and advisory to legal reforms in China. The research method included fieldwork, interviews with government, village cadres, and village members, as well legal analysis of documents from communities, local governments and intermediaries. Stora Enso staff in Beijing and Guangxi were contacted in December 2009 to inform them of the study and request interviews and participation in the fieldwork. Unfortunately, Stora Enso staff in Beijing had one meeting with RDI and did not follow-up to supply information to RDI or RRI. They also chose to not be interviewed or participate in the field study.

     

     In brief, the study finds that despite Stora Enso’s good intentions as revealed by its establishment of the “Principles for Sustainable Wood and Fibre Procurement and Land Management” in March 2005 among other CSR principles, there are major limits to their legal due diligence. In effect, this is raising risks for local people to both their rights to land and livelihoods. Since weak governance and limited recognition of local land rights is more the norm than the exception in developing countries, the study points to the continued difficulty of meeting local laws, much less global standards, by foreign investors who hold a commitment to CSR.

     

    Contact Information:

    For more information or to request an interview, please contact:

    Coimbra Sirica: +1-301-943-3287 or csirica@burnesscommunications.com
    Michelle Geis: +1-301-280-5712 or mgeis@burnesscommunications.com

    Stora Enso has asked RRI to provide contact information for a company representative. Please write to Mr. Lauri Peltola for more information, Lauri.Peltola@storaenso.com.

     

     

    Associated Documents

    大规模获取中国林地的案例研究 大规模获取中国林地的案例研究
    斯道拉恩索在广西自治区合浦县的项目
    李平, 罗宾.尼尔逊 - Landesa
    The End of the Hinterland

    The End of the Hinterland

    Forests, Conflict and Climate Change

    Rights and Resources Group Staff, Liz Alden Wily, David Rhodes, Madhu Sarin, Mina Setra, Phil Shearman, - Also available in Spanish, French and Indonesia Bahasa. - Rights and Resources, The Centre for People and Forests, Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre

     

    Forests have long been a hinterland: remote, “backward” areas largely controlled by external, often urban, actors and seen to be of little use to national development or the world except as a supply of low-valued natural resources. 2009 marks the beginning of the end of this era: Forest lands are booming in value for the production of food, fuel, fiber and now carbon. New global satellite and communications technology allow the world to peer into, assess the value of, and potentially control forests from anywhere in the world. More than ever, forests are bargaining chips in global climate negotiations and markets. This unprecedented exposure and pressure, and risk to local people and their forests, is being met by unprecedented levels of local organization and political influence, providing nations and the world at large tremendous opportunity to right historic wrongs, advance rural development and save forests. But the chaos in Copenhagen at COP15 laid bare the looming crises that the world will face if the longer-term trends of ignored rights, hunger, and climate change remain inadequately addressed in 2010. While the era of the hinterland is ending, the future of forest areas is not yet clear. There will be unparalleled national and global attention and investment in forests in 2010—but who will drive the agenda and who will make the decisions? Will forest areas remain controlled from beyond? On whose terms will the hinterland be integrated into global markets and politics? This report takes stock of the current status of forest rights and tenure globally, assesses the key issues and trends of 2009, and identifies key questions and challenges that we will face in 2010.

     

    Associated Documents

    El Final de las Tierras Baldías El Final de las Tierras Baldías
    Bosques, conflictos y cambio climático
    Rights and Resources Group Staff, Liz Alden Wily, David Rhodes, Mina Setra, Phil Shearman - Rights and Resources, The Centre for People and Forests, Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre
    La Fin de l'Hinterland La Fin de l'Hinterland
    Forêts, Conflit et Changement Climatique
    Rights and Resources Group Staff, Liz Alden Wily, David Rhodes, Madhu Sarin, Mina Setra, Phil Shearman - Rights and Resources, The Center for People and Forests, Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre
    Berakhirnya Daerah Pedalaman Berakhirnya Daerah Pedalaman
    Hutan, Sengketa, dan Perubahan Iklim
    Rights and Resources Group Staff, Liz Alden Wily, David Rhodes, Madhu Sarin, Mina Setra, Phil Shearman - Rights and Resources, The Center for People and Forests, Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre
    Foundations for Effectiveness: A framework for ensuring effective climate change mitigation and adaptation in forest areas while ensuring human rights and development

    Foundations for Effectiveness: A framework for ensuring effective climate change mitigation and adaptation in forest areas while ensuring human rights and development

    - Rights and Resources, Rainforest Foundation Norway

     

    Moving towards Copenhagen, governments party to the UNFCCC are preparing plans that will include forests in a global framework for addressing climate change mitigation. In this pivotal moment, it is critical to recognize, protect and strengthen the rights of indigenous peoples and forest communities — their full participation will be essential to the success of climate intervention strategies designed here.

    This policy brief aims to provide negotiators, their governments and inter-governmental organizations a clear framework for action to ensure that responses to climate change do not undermine national social and economic development.

    The analysis is based on the conclusions of the conference on Rights, Forests and Climate Change, organized by Rights and Resources Initiative and Rainforest Foundation Norway and held in Oslo, 15-17 October 2008.

     

    Associated Documents

    Bases para la Efectividad Bases para la Efectividad
    Marco para garantizar la efectividad de la mitigación y la adaptación al cambio climático en las regiones forestales al mismo tiempo que se garantizan los derechos humanos y el desarrollo
    - Rights and Resources, Rainforest Foundation Norway
    Fondations pour l’Efficacité Fondations pour l’Efficacité
    Note d’orientation politique
    - Rights and Resources
    Local Rights and Tenure for Forests

    Local Rights and Tenure for Forests

    Opportunity or Threat for Conservation?

    Jeffrey Sayer, Jeffrey McNeely, Stewart Maginnis, Into Boedhihartono, Gill Shepherd, Bob Fisher - IUCN, Rights and Resources

     

    Conservation organizations are becoming increasingly aware of the need to deal equitably with local peoples’ rights to forest land and forest resources. “Rights-based” approaches to conservation are being widely promoted.1 In many situations these “Rights-based Approaches” are evolving alongside major forest governance reform initiatives. These two trends might be expected to seek similar goals – greater equity and certainty over who can use forests and for what purpose. The reality is that the processes of governance and rights reform are revealing underlying tensions between the needs to husband the local values of forests versus the need to conserve the so-called public goods values that accrue to society at large. Reconciling the trade-offs between local and public goods values will be a major challenge for resource managers in coming decades.

     

    Associated Documents

    Rights, Tenure, Governance and a More Pro-poor Vision for Conservation - Summary Rights, Tenure, Governance and a More Pro-poor Vision for Conservation - Summary

    Gill Shepherd, Bob Fisher, Stewart Maginnis, Jeffrey Sayer - IUCN, Rights and Resources
    Climate Change and Governance in the Forest Sector

    Climate Change and Governance in the Forest Sector

    An overview of the issues on forests and climate change with specific consideration of sector governance, tenure and access for local stakeholders

    Carmenza Robledo, Jürgen Blaser, Sarah Byrne, Kaspar Schmidt - Intercooperation, Rights and Resources

     

    Using forest options for addressing climate change requires a serious improvement in governance of forest resources that goes beyond traditional notions of governance and that includes issues regarding the public sector, the private sector, and civil society. Good governance of forest resources is critical for addressing climate change. Therefore, major efforts are needed for improving transparency, accountability, and equity within and among the public sector, the private sector, and civil society. For the achievement of good governance, clarification of forest tenure and use rights in favor of local forest-dependent stakeholders is a priority. Because of their nature, climate change options in forestry will always require high standards for implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. Thus, high governance standards are an ultimate requirement. Unless robust and proactive steps are taken to clarify and strengthen the property rights of rural and forest peoples, future climate change initiatives will benefit only a few, primarily wealthy elites and will reinforce existing social and economic disparities.

     

    Associated Documents

    Climate Change and Governance in the Forest Sector - Summary Climate Change and Governance in the Forest Sector - Summary

    Carmenza Robledo, Juergen Blaser, Kaspar Schimdt, Tamara Levine - Intercooperation, Rights and Resources
    Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam

    Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam

    Case Studies from the Northern Upland and Central Highlands Regions

    Nguyen Quang Tan, Nguyen Ba Ngai, Tran Ngoc Thanh, William Sunderlin, Yurdi Yasmi - RECOFTC, Rights and Resources

     

    This paper is part of a study by RECOFTC that aims to acquire a better understanding of the situation of forest tenure and the implementation of Vietnam's forest tenure policies.

    The study finds that despite two decades of state control over forests in Vietnam, traditional forest management systems endure. Under these conditions and with timely external support, local communities can not only benefit from forest management, but also protect allocated forests from unauthorized use.

    Forestry and Poverty Data in Viet Nam: Status, Gaps, and Potential Uses

    Forestry and Poverty Data in Viet Nam: Status, Gaps, and Potential Uses

    Nguyen Ba Ngai, Nguyen Quang Tan, William D. Sunderlin, Yurdi Yasmi - Rights and Resources, RECOFTC, Viet Nam Forestry University

     

    This paper is a key output from the Transforming China’s Forests Impacts in Southeast Asia: Advancing Pro-Poor Market Reform for Sustainable Livelihoods and Forests project, conducted by RECOFTC and the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI). The project aim is to advance policy and market reforms in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, and Viet Nam.

    The report focuses on understanding the current situation of data availability with regard to forest resources, forest tenure, markets for forest products, and poverty, with a view to identifying policy barriers, constraints, and issues for further work.

    From Exclusion to Ownership? Challenges and Opportunities in Advancing Forest Tenure Reform

    From Exclusion to Ownership? Challenges and Opportunities in Advancing Forest Tenure Reform

    William D. Sunderlin, Jeffrey Hatcher, Megan Liddle - Rights and Resources

     

    In 2002 "Who Owns the World’s Forests?: Forest Tenure and Forests in Transition" reported that in recent decades governments had begun to reduce their legal ownership and control of the world’s forests. The aim of this report is to measure whether this forest tenure transition continued in the 2002 – 2008 period, and to assess the implications of statutory forest tenure change for forest peoples, governments, and the global community.

    The findings of this study show that despite a continued transition towards recognizing forest land access and ownership of local people, significant challenges remain. The report describes these challenges and provides recommendations on how the forest tenure reform process can be carried forward.

     

    Associated Documents

    From Exclusion to Ownership? - Summary From Exclusion to Ownership? - Summary
    Challenges and Opportunities in Advancing Forest Tenure Reform
    - Rights and Resources
    Seeing People Through the Trees: Scaling Up Efforts to Advance Rights and Address Poverty, Conflict and Climate Change

    Seeing People Through the Trees: Scaling Up Efforts to Advance Rights and Address Poverty, Conflict and Climate Change

    - Rights and Resources

     

    Forest areas have an integral role in the development agenda of the next several decades because of the myriad challenges that converge within their landscapes. Donor agencies and policy-makers can change historical patterns of forest governance and management as a first and critical step toward addressing the impending global challenges of climate change, ongoing conflict and persistent poverty.

    The report references past models of forest management to demonstrate the weaknesses in prior governance structures while emphasizing gaps and opportunities for the strategic involvement of the international community. The key messages and recommendations to emerge from this literature speak to the global development community, country governments and civil society regarding their roles in forest tenure reform and improved governance.

     

    Associated Documents

    Seeing People Through the Trees  - Summary Seeing People Through the Trees - Summary
    Scaling up efforts to advance rights and address poverty, conflict and climate change
    - Rights and Resources
    Beyond Tenure: Rights-Based Approaches to People and Forests

    Beyond Tenure: Rights-Based Approaches to People and Forests

    Some lessons from the Forest Peoples Programme

    Marcus Colchester - Forest Peoples Programme, Rights and Resources

     

    This analysis from Forest Peoples Programme and RRI concludes that forest tenure reforms must take into account a wide range of human rights beyond solely security of property rights. Effective forest tenure reforms must include respect for the broad range of social, political and economic rights protected in international human rights treaties but frequently absent from narrow sectoral decision-making about forests.

     

    Associated Documents

    Beyond Tenure: Rights-based Approaches to Peoples and Forests - Summary Beyond Tenure: Rights-based Approaches to Peoples and Forests - Summary

    Marcus Colchester - Forest Peoples Programme, Rights and Resources
    Whose Land Is It? Commons and Conflict States

    Whose Land Is It? Commons and Conflict States

    Why the Ownership of the Commons Matters in Making and Keeping Peace

    Liz Alden Wily - Rights and Resources

     

    This paper addresses the tenure fate of three commons: the 30 million hectares of pasturelands of Afghanistan which represent 45 percent of the total land area and are key to livelihood and water catchment in that exceedingly dry country; the 5.7 million hectares of timber-rich tropical forests in Liberia, 59 percent of the total land area; and the 125 million hectares of savannah in Sudan, half the area of that largest state of Africa. All three resources have an uncountably long history as customary properties of local communities. They also share a 20th century history as the property of the state. Of course there is nothing unusual in this contradiction. Between one and two billion people on the planet today are tenants of the State (CLEP, 2008, Alden Wily, forthcoming (b)). They live on and use traditional properties on which, in the eyes of the national laws of those countries, they are no more than lawful occupants and users. When their expansive collectively-owned forest, pastoral and swamp lands are taken into account, up to five billion hectares are involved, potentially one third of the world’s total land area.

    Whose Forest Tenure Reform Is It? Lessons from Case Studies in Vietnam

    Whose Forest Tenure Reform Is It? Lessons from Case Studies in Vietnam

    Nguyen Quang Tan, Nguyen Ba Ngai, Tran Ngoc Thanh - RECOFTC, Rights and Resources

     

    This Policy Brief presents some of the major findings of a study conducted to determine how forest tenure reform in Vietnam has worked in practice and how it has affected local people's livelihoods. The policy brief focuses on four issues: actual control over forest resources; local people's confusion about their rights; impacts of forest tenure reform on poverty alleviation; and the ability of local people to manage forests.

    Forest Governance in Countries with Federal Systems of Government

    Forest Governance in Countries with Federal Systems of Government

    Lessons and implications for decentralization

    Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Hans M. Gregersen, Andy White - CIFOR, Forest Trends, Rights and Resources

     

    This study examines the experience of federal countries in managing their decentralized systems of forest governance.

    More than three quarters of developing countries and nations in transition are in the midst of experimenting with decentralization of their governments. Decentralized governance in general in the forestry sector in particular is thought to lead to better forest management outcomes. In federal governments, decentralization tends to be more pronounced.

     

    Associated Documents

    Forest Governance in Countries with Federal Systems of Government - Brief Forest Governance in Countries with Federal Systems of Government - Brief

    Arnoldo Contreras-Hermosilla, Hans M. Gregersen, Andy White - CIFOR, Forest Trends, Rights and Resources
    Forest-Related Conflict

    Forest-Related Conflict

    Impacts, Links and Measures to Mitigate

    Ruben de Koning, Doris Capistrano, Yurdi Yasmi, Paolo Cerutti - CIFOR, RECOFTC, Rights and Resources

     

    Forest-based conflict is one of the major global challenges for the international forestry agenda together with poverty, climate change, conservation, and biofuels. In this paper, we will estimate the scope of the problem for people and forests, identify the role of forest rights and tenure as part of the cause of and solution to conflict, and project future challenges. We will recommend a set of actions that donors, govern¬ments, and civil society organizations should embark on to fight corruption, to tackle power imbalances, to clarify rights, to improve corporate responsibility, and to engage communities in resource management.

    Forest tenure and governance reform will not resolve the most violent conflicts that play out in forests around the world. However, forestry sectors can contribute to the creation of enabling environments for peace by preventing conflict escalation and by contributing to postconflict reconstruction. Engagements in structural forest-sector reform and forest-based investment are particularly needed in forest-rich and conflict-prone countries in the tropics. The ideas and projections included in this paper are preliminary and meant to stimulate reflection rather than to insist on particular conclusions.

     

    Associated Documents

    Forest Related Conflict: Impacts, Links and Measures to Mitigate - Summary Forest Related Conflict: Impacts, Links and Measures to Mitigate - Summary

    Ruben de Koning, Doris Capistrano, Yurdi Yasmi - CIFOR, Rights and Resources
    An Ear to the Ground: Tenure Changes and Challenges for Forest Communities in Latin America

    An Ear to the Ground: Tenure Changes and Challenges for Forest Communities in Latin America

    Deborah Barry, Peter Leigh Taylor - Rights and Resources, CIFOR

     

    The Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) “Listening, Learning and Sharing Launch” (LLSL) was designed as an “ear to the ground” for hearing the assessments and concerns of NGOs, community organizations, politicians, scholars, and governments in lowland tropical forest countries around the world. With limited financial and human resources dedicated to this, the exercise attempted to gather these inputs, concerns and perspectives to help shape the unique effort ‘under construction’ in RRI to bring the voices, experiences and current issues of communities and social movements to planning ways to break the logjam that is impeding progress in improving management of the worlds forests. We realize the sense of urgency, as we are at a time when the world is faced with global climate change and needs to maintain and expand forest coverage while protecting the local livelihoods that also contribute to protecting global ones.

    In the Latin America LLSL, information, analyses and interpretations were gathered regarding trends and issues through desktop research, case studies, interviews, field visits, and researchers´ participation in regional events. Given the significant forest area now under indigenous peoples´ claims and/or control, special emphasis was given to gathering perspectives on tenure and poverty issues among indigenous communities.

     

    Associated Documents

    LLSL Country Case Study: Guatemala LLSL Country Case Study: Guatemala

    Anne Larson - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Honduras LLSL Country Case Study: Honduras

    Anne Larson - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Nicaragua LLSL Country Case Study: Nicaragua

    Anne Larson - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Panama LLSL Country Case Study: Panama

    Anne Larson - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Forest Tenure and Poverty in Peru LLSL Country Case Study: Forest Tenure and Poverty in Peru

    Peter Leigh Taylor - Rights and Resources
    LLSL Country Case Study: Forest Tenure and Poverty in Brazil  LLSL Country Case Study: Forest Tenure and Poverty in Brazil
    With an emphasis on the states of Acre, Amazonas, and Pará
    Samantha Stone - Rights and Resources
    The Boomerang - When Will the Global Forest Sector Reallocate from the South to the North?

    The Boomerang - When Will the Global Forest Sector Reallocate from the South to the North?

    Sten Nilsson - IIASA

     

    This paper examines the commonly held notion that the forest sector in the south will dominate in the future by addressing issues such as climate change, increasing demands for food as global development accelerates, and the pursuit of alternative fuel sources.

    Community-Based Forest Enterprises in Tropical Forest Countries: Status and Potential

    Community-Based Forest Enterprises in Tropical Forest Countries: Status and Potential

    Augusta Molnar, Megan Liddle, Carina Bracer, Arvind Khare, Andy White, Justin Bull - ITTO, Rights and Resources, Forest Trends

     

    Like all forest enterprises, community forestry enterprises (CFEs) have a mixed record, with numerous cases of successes as well as failures. As the experience in developed countries attest, SMEs can emerge and flourish where the tenure and policy frameworks allow them to exist legally and compete fairly with large-scale enterprises. Unfortunately, only a few tropical countries have had favourable conditions in place for a sufficiently long time to enable their development or viability. This study identifies some shared trends for the emergence and development of CFEs in a range of different tropical countries that indicate a high level of promise overall.

     

    Associated Documents

    2007 CFE Conference - Case Study Agrofort 2007 CFE Conference - Case Study Agrofort

    Charlotte Benneker - Wageningen University
    2007 CFE Conference - Civil Society for Arbol Verde Development 2007 CFE Conference - Civil Society for Arbol Verde Development

    Dietmar Stoian, Aldo Rodas - CATIE - CeCoEco
    2007 CFE Conference: Including the Excluded 2007 CFE Conference: Including the Excluded
    A Pro-Poor Bel Fruit Juice Making Enterprise in Nepal
    Dinesh Paudel - RECOFTC
    2007 CFE Conference - Community Forest Development in Guatemala 2007 CFE Conference - Community Forest Development in Guatemala
    A Case Study of Cooperativa Carmelita
    Dietmar Stoian, Aldo Rodas - CATIE - CeCoEco
    2007 CFE Conference: Supporting Livelihoods through Employment 2007 CFE Conference: Supporting Livelihoods through Employment
    The Chaubas-Bhumlu Community Sawmill, Nepal
    Netra Prasad Timsina - Forest Action - Nepal
    2007 CFE Conference - A Brief History of the COATLAHL Cooperative 2007 CFE Conference - A Brief History of the COATLAHL Cooperative
    At Last A Little Optimism
    Filippo Del Gatto, Danilo Davila, Jens Kanstrub, Sergio Herrera, Andre Mildam, Noe Polanco
    2007 CFE Conference: One Small Peasant Village’s Grand Forest Industry 2007 CFE Conference: One Small Peasant Village’s Grand Forest Industry
    A Case Study of the El Balcon Ejido in Western Mexico
    Claudio Garibay Orozco - Consejo Civil Mexicano para la Silvicultura Sostenible A.C.
    2007 CFE Conference - Community Forest Enterprises: A Case Study of the Gambia 2007 CFE Conference - Community Forest Enterprises: A Case Study of the Gambia

    Wolfgang Thoma, Kanimang Camara - UN Food and Agriculture Organization
    2007 CFE Conference - Community Forestry Benefits Customary Landowners 2007 CFE Conference - Community Forestry Benefits Customary Landowners
    Madang Province, Papua New Guinea
    Yati Bun, Bazakie Baput - FPCD
    2007 CFE Conference: Payments for environmental services in San Nicolas, Colombia 2007 CFE Conference: Payments for environmental services in San Nicolas, Colombia
    A Participatory and Holistic Approach in Forestry
    Carmenza Robledo, Patricia Tobon - EMPA, CORNARE
    2007 CFE Conference: Country Case Study, Quintana Roo, Mexico 2007 CFE Conference: Country Case Study, Quintana Roo, Mexico
    Sociedad de Productores Forestales Ejidales de Quintana Roo
    Peter Wilshusen - Bucknell University
    2007 CFE Conference: PingShang Bamboo Group 2007 CFE Conference: PingShang Bamboo Group
    A Case Study of a Community Enterprise in China's Bamboo Sub-sector
    R. Anders West, Christopher Aldridge - China Agricultural University, Beijing P.R. China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou P.R. China
    2007 CFE Conference - Behind the Fragile Enterprise 2007 CFE Conference - Behind the Fragile Enterprise
    Community-based Timber Utilization in the Southern Philippines
    Juan Pulhin, Anthony Ramirez
    2007 CFE Conference - Community Based Forest Enterprises in Cameroon 2007 CFE Conference - Community Based Forest Enterprises in Cameroon
    A case study of the Ngola-Achip Community Forest in East Cameroon
    Kenneth Angu Angu - IUCN - Regional Office for Central Africa
    2007 CFE Conference: From subsistence harvesters to market players 2007 CFE Conference: From subsistence harvesters to market players
    The evolution of brazil nut production in Manicore, Amazonas State, Brazil
    Alejandra Martin - IBENS
    2007 CFE Conference - Case Study of Mamiraua, Brazil 2007 CFE Conference - Case Study of Mamiraua, Brazil

    Andrea Pires - Mamiraua Institute for Sustainable Development (MISD)
    2007 CFE Conference: The New Oil Economy of the Rural Poor 2007 CFE Conference: The New Oil Economy of the Rural Poor
    Biofuel Planations for Power, Water, Transport and Carbon Credits
    Emmanual D'Silva
    2007 Conferencia ECF: Breve Historia de la Cooperativa COATLAHL 2007 Conferencia ECF: Breve Historia de la Cooperativa COATLAHL
    Al fin un poco de optimismo
    Filippo Del Gatto
    Transitions in Forest Tenure and Governance: Drivers, Projected Patterns and Implications

    Transitions in Forest Tenure and Governance: Drivers, Projected Patterns and Implications

    - Rights and Resources

     

    Major shifts in the global economy, as well as in social, political and ecological systems are affecting forests and forest livelihoods such that future challenges in the forest sector will be quite distinct from those faced in the past. The forest sector is now more embedded in the global economy than ever before, and the influence of other sectors on forests, forest peoples and forest industry will similarly be much greater in the future than in the past. This paper briefly presents our perspectives on: (1) major drivers shaping forest tenure and governance, (2) projected patterns by 2020 and (3) the implications of these transitions for those concerned with forest livelihoods and conservation today.

     

    Associated Documents

    Transitions in Forest Tenure and Governance - Summary Transitions in Forest Tenure and Governance - Summary
    Drivers, projected patterns and implications for the global community
    - Rights and Resources
    Convergence of the Fuel, Food and Fiber Markets - Summary

    Convergence of the Fuel, Food and Fiber Markets - Summary

    A Forest Sector Perspective

    Don G. Roberts - CIBC World Markets, Rights and Resources

     

    The biofuels sector will continue to experience significant growth over the coming decades, and over time its development will lead to a convergence of the markets for fuel, food and fiber (e.g. wood). This is a summary of the full paper prepared for the conference "Towards a New Global Forest Agenda", held in Stockholm in October 2007.

    Poverty, Rights and Tenure on Forest Lands

    Poverty, Rights and Tenure on Forest Lands

    Priority Actions for Achieving Solutions

    William D. Sunderlin - Rights and Resources

     

    A background paper for the conference "Towards a New Global Forest Agenda", held in Stockholm in October 2007.

    The Dispute Resolution Process in Relation to Logging Permits in China

    The Dispute Resolution Process in Relation to Logging Permits in China

    Li Ping - Rural Development Institute

     

    This paper examines the dispute resolution experiences in the US, UK and Ireland with respect to denial of applications for logging permits, and its possible application to China.

    The Impact of Regulatory Takings by the Chinese State on Rural Land Tenure and Property Rights

    The Impact of Regulatory Takings by the Chinese State on Rural Land Tenure and Property Rights

    Li Ping - Rural Development Institute

     

    This paper will introduce and discuss regulatory takings laws in the US and some European countries. It makes a series of recommendations on legislative reforms in China’s regulatory takings regime taking into account the unique characteristics of China’s property rights institution.

    Community-Based Forest Enterprises in Tropical Forest Countries - Full Report with Annexes

    Community-Based Forest Enterprises in Tropical Forest Countries - Full Report with Annexes

    Augusta Molnar, Megan Liddle, Carina Bracer, Arvind Khare, Andy White, Justin Bull - ITTO, Rights and Resources, Forest Trends

     

    Like all forest enterprises, community forestry enterprises (CFEs) have a mixed record, with numerous cases of successes as well as failures. As the experience in developed countries attest, SMEs can emerge and flourish where the tenure and policy frameworks allow them to exist legally and compete fairly with large-scale enterprises. Unfortunately, only a few tropical countries have had favorable conditions in place for a sufficiently long time to enable their development or viability. This study identifies some shared trends for the emergence and development of CFEs in a range of different tropical countries that indicate a high level of promise overall.

    This full version of the report includes annexes with the case study methodology, a field survey of community forestry operations in Mexico, a survey of cases of community participation in Markets for Ecosystem Services, and summaries of the twenty case studies surveyed in the main report.

     

    Associated Documents

    Empresas Forestales Comunitarias en Países Forestales Tropicales: Situación Actual y en Potencia Empresas Forestales Comunitarias en Países Forestales Tropicales: Situación Actual y en Potencia

    Augusta Molnar, Megan Liddle, Carina Bracer, Arvind Khare, Andy White, Justin Bull - ITTO, Rights and Resources, Forest Trends
    Entreprises forestières communautaires dans les pays forestiers tropicaux: Situation et potentialites Entreprises forestières communautaires dans les pays forestiers tropicaux: Situation et potentialites

    Augusta Molnar, Megan Liddle, Carina Bracer, Arvind Khare, Andy White, Justin Bull - ITTO, RRI, Forest Trends
    Land, Forest and People: Facing the Challenges in South-East Asia

    Land, Forest and People: Facing the Challenges in South-East Asia

    Listening, Learning and Sharing Asia Final Report

    Marcus Colchester, Chip Fay - Forest Peoples Programme, World Agroforestry Centre

     

    Over the past 20 years, the region reviewed in this report - South East Asia stretching from Laos across to Indonesia - has experienced major changes in forest cover, social development and forest policy. Natural forests have shrunk dramatically and continue to be degraded and cleared at startling rates. Forest areas set aside for protection have increased. At the same time large areas of land and forest have been ‘converted’ to timber plantations and estate crops. During the same period, both for better and for worse, the forest peoples who inhabit these areas have also been through tumultuous changes.

    07 Poverty Reduction and Forests: Tenure, Market and Policy Reforms

    07 Poverty Reduction and Forests: Tenure, Market and Policy Reforms

    Proceedings of an International Conference

    Bob Fisher, Sango Mahanty, Cor Veer - RECOFTC, Rights and Resources

     

    A great deal of discussion in recent years has focused on the role of conservation, and more specifically, sustainable forest management, in contributing to poverty reduction. A number of conferences and workshops have picked up on this theme including the International Conference on Poverty Reduction and Forests: Tenure, Market and Policy Reforms. The importance of policies that support rights to forest resources and reforms to markets has been recognized as essential to enabling more effective contributions from forests to poverty reduction. Recognition of the need for such policy reforms led to the establishment of the Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI), a coalition of organizations working together to encourage greater global action on forest policy and market reforms, with the aim of increasing household and community ownership, control, and benefits from forests. RECOFTC and other RRI partners proposed this Conference because we recognize the need for exploring real experiences in connecting forest policy reforms and poverty reduction, both by giving positive examples and examining the constraints. The Conference provided a valuable opportunity to share the experiences from practitioners throughout the world, with cases from Asia and the Pacific, Africa, and Latin America. These proceedings contain selected papers from the Conference and convey much of the richness of the discussions in Bangkok. On behalf of RECOFTC and the RRI partners, we would like to congratulate the authors on their thoughtful contributions. We are sure that these proceedings will contribute to further discussion, policy reform, and other necessary action to ensure sustainable forest management reaches its potential to contribute to poverty reduction.

    A Legal Review and Analysis of China’s Forest Tenure System with an Emphasis on Collective Forestland

    A Legal Review and Analysis of China’s Forest Tenure System with an Emphasis on Collective Forestland

    Li Ping, Zhu Keliang - Rural Development Institute, Rights and Resources

     

    Based on extensive desk research and fieldwork in three provinces, this paper reviews and analyzes the development of the Chinese regulatory frameworks that govern forest tenure. Special attention is paid to farmers’ rights to collective forestland and forest products, and a particular focus is given to the current legal regime on farmers’ tenure rights to forestland.

    Where in the world is there pro-poor forest policy and tenure reform?

    Where in the world is there pro-poor forest policy and tenure reform?

    Mary Hobley

     

    Many countries are now recognizing community ownership and devolving forest responsibilities to local jurisdictions. This transition in ownership is both a response to rights-based movements to increase local ownership and access to forest resources and a strategic policy shift responding to the widespread failure of governments to avoid deforestation, control illegal activities or generate the desired equity of benefits under systems of state forest ownership and control. This transition varies from one country to another based on the biophysical, economic, social or historical reality. Yet there is much that one country and citizenry can learn from the experience of others regarding policy choices and the pace or strategy of reform.

    Who Owns the World's Forests?

    Who Owns the World's Forests?

    Andy White, Alejandra Martin - Forest Trends

     

    This growing global recognition of the importance of property rights is mirrored by longstanding preoccupation with rights issues at local levels. The questions of who owns the forests, who claims them, who has access to them and further, who should own them, are hotly contested in many forest regions of the world. These are often the primary concerns of local people most directly dependent on forest resources.